1. Discuss and describe the philosophy of justice proposed by Aristotle in Book V of the Nicomachean Ethics. How does this philosophy of justice relate to Aristotle's virtue ethic?
With reference to Aristotle, justice can be explained to mean both fairness and lawfulness because it is not only lawlessness, but also unfairness (Kraut, 2006). Persons are encouraged to behave virtuously in order to be lawful. According to Aristotle, vrtue is different from justice since it is about one’s moral state. Universal justice explains the general fairness and lawfulness. Particular justice addresses the divisible honor, safety, and money, in which the gain of one leads to the loss by a different one.
Rectification and distribution are two forms of particular justice. Rectification deals with remedying unequal loss and gain between people. Distribution of justice addressed wealth distribution in community members. Aristotle explains that justice has to be distributed in a proportionate manner. For instance, a shoe cannot be exchanged for a harvest by farmers. There is no equality in value.
Distributive justice underpins the bias of Aristotle’s autocracy. All humans, including slaves, have no maximum freedom for exercising all the virtues. For this reason, they acquire a lesser city’s wealth share. Distributive justice explains that the persons with privileges considered the greatest and have a bigger access to the wealth, freedom and leisure vital for virtue.
Aristotle saw the distributive justice not to be reinforcing any form of unjust aristocracy. The philosophy outlined seems not to question male aristocrats. The major Aristotle’s concern is that those right aristocrats rule. The philosophy regarding distributive justice is that the privilege to rule belongs to the males who are aristocrats and show high sense of virtue and not strong in terms of military strength or wealth.
Justice philosophy is related to Aristotle’s ethic virtue in that the ethic purpose is to become good, and the philosophy emphasizes on the importance of fairness and lawfulness. There is a common ground between the two; both direct the society to exercise the virtue. The virtue explains that the best tactic to handle the situation is to subject it to its cause rather than the predetermined procedure to handle it, and so is the philosophy.
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2. Discuss and describe consequentialism. How does this ethical philosophy relate to egoism and utilitarianism?
Consequentialism is a theory of normative ethics that explains that the results of a person’s deed become the final basis of judgment regarding the wrongness or rightness of the conduct. It means that judgment is administered after establishing what a person has done. The act is scrutinized to get the basis of judging. Consequentialists comprehend that the deed said to be morally upright is the one, which results to a good outcome. For instance, if persons demolish a wall of the house to save items from burning as a result of burning door section, then the deed is right because the outcomes are good. The procedure of achieving a goal is acceptable if the goal is moral enough. For instance, if a person wants to be a big farmer in the production of tea, then the procedure of reaching the goal is acceptable, and so the goal is moral.
Utilitarianism and egoism are systems of moral that maximize on specific consequences of an action or policy. Egoism makes consideration of individual consequences, while utilitarianism points out on the many persons’ actions consequences.
3. In question 2 you discussed consequentialism. How do the ethical philosophies of either "regularianism" or "deontology" relate to egoism and utilitarianism?
Regularianism is a theory explaining an act to be good morally if it has obeyed a rule, and bad morally as a result of rule breaking (Pangle, 2003). Rules established to guide any institution should be obeyed. Those who act well are considered morally upright. Rules come from religious commands, civil laws, professional codes, and social norms. Such principles are set to outline what people should do to make life easy for them, as well as for others. Deontology means theories regarding specific actions that are bad, and they are derived from the point that such are prohibited. The prohibition is introduced so that those who go contrary to norms are punished. The selected instances incorporate murdering of innocent people, stealing, drug abuse, rape, and lies. There are expectations of humans from others within any community. The philosophies of utilitarianism and egoism, as well as regularianism and deontology theories, are related. All of them have to do with outcomes of actions of persons and reveal actions that may lead to negative or positive outcomes. The outcome of a deed is considered negative if it goes against the set rules within a community. It is positive, on the other hand, if it reveals obedience. Utilitarianism and egoism look at definite outcomes of actions. Regularianism explains that the goodness of moral is dependent on the rule obedience. Therefore, they are related.
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4. Explain the relevance of ethics and justice topics covered in this course to both the American system of justice and the justice professions.
The American system of justice requires the understanding of topics covered in order to exercise doing the right things to the members of the community they live in. The system has faults, such as lying, crimes, and general law breaking among others. The topics like consequentialisms educate people to comprehend that their actions determine the punishment they get. Consequentialism gives illumination to humans that they will be judged with respect to their deeds. Counselors working with people in the system of criminal justice require the understanding of justice and ethics to aid them in criminal rehabilitation. They gain knowledge required to show the victims the means of handling emotions that come after crimes.
The court officers, such as judges and attorneys, are the people requiring the understanding of justice and ethics. Defence of clients by attorneys should be done with no court misleading intentions. Justice should always be the ultimate goal of any defense. Guilty verdict is always wrong. Unethical practices of judges have an outcome of undermining the system of justice. It is therefore important that judges acquire knowledge from justice and ethics in order do right in courts. The justice system in America has gotten the corruption poison injected in it by the greed of wealth.
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