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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician and a founder of psychoanalysis. He is considered to start the era of modern psychology by introducing the first and most outstanding explanation of the inner mental forces that determine people’s behavior. 

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Freud was born in 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia. When Sigmund was a child his family moved to Vienna. His father did his best in order to give Sigmund good education; though, the family was not very rich. After having graduated one of the best schools of Austria, the Sperl Gymnasium, Freud entered the University of Vienna (Gay, 1988). Freud started to study medicine and devoted all his life to this science. It is worth noting that Freud received his doctor of medicine degree when he was just twenty-four.

He worked several years in the well-known hospital in Vienna where he became interested in psychiatry. Freud was given a grant for continuing his education and researches in France. In a few years, he returned to Vienna and started his private practice as a neurologist. He paid a greater attention to the treatment of patients with hysteria using hypnosis and other techniques (Gay, 1988).

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He studied the influence of various unconscious forces on peoples’ actions and thoughts. Freud is believed to be the first scholar who used the term psychoanalysis. The methods of interpretation of dreams and free association are basic techniques of psychoanalysis that were introduced by Freud. His theory concerning sexuality that is treated as the root of neuroses in the adults turned out to be revolutionizing (Gay, 1988).

Freud used to gathering his colleagues, Carl Jung and Eugen Bleuler, in order to represent his new findings and to have some discussions. These meetings resulted in the establishment of the psychoanalytic movement in the world. In 1908, the first International Psychoanalytic Congress took place in Salzburg (Gay, 1988; Tyle, 2002).

During the last years of his life, Freud worked very persistently. He managed to publish his findings and results on the importance of sexual and aggressive drives (Beyond the Pleasure Principle), worked out a new data concerning the structure of mind (The Ego and Id) (Tyle, 2002). His daughter spent with him his last days, and in 1939, Freud died in England.  

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In conclusion, Sigmund Freud was the first scholar who managed to study many mysteries of people’s unconsciousness, and his influence is considered to permeate each sphere of our life.

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