The global economy can face periods of sharp recessions called crises. Generally, they all are divided into debt, foreign exchange and banking ones. Analyzing of premises and outcomes of such economic calamities is essential and it is highly applicable to the last two decades.
Due to immense budget deficit in 1998 Russia faced devaluation of ruble leading to default on public and private debt. After reviewing its economic policy and increase of oil prices the country managed to overcome the recession. In the aftermath budget was more carefully planned and Russian companies became more competitive. Financial crisis of Iceland in 2008 was caused by the collapse of country’s main banks. A referendum on debt payment was held and foreign investors conducted a financial investigation, which helped to save Iceland from bankruptcy. Global crisis of 2008 left Greece vulnerable until nowadays, as its economy was very sensitive to changes of business cycle. Help from the EU was combined with severe domestic savings, which partly covered the country’s debt, but have not eliminated the problem.
1994 foreign exchange crisis in Mexico was caused by peso devaluation. Survival scheme was similar to that of Greece, but the valuable lesson was the country’s economic dependency from the USA and failure to regulate its external economy. Crisis in Southern and Eastern Asia of 1997 was paradoxically caused by extremely brisk development. Dynamic growth was reestablished with the help of political and economic amendments to national economies.
Increased interest rates of Japanese banks caused country’s economic recession for the whole decade. Reviewed monetary policy and introduction of bank bailouts stabilized Japan in 2000’s, which designated the end of “bubble economy”. A wave of consumer lending in the USA led to 2008 subprime mortgage crisis. Cooperation of Federal Reserve System and Central Bank managed to keep market liquidity; however, loaning conditions were reviewed globally. Spanish banking crisis of the current year has been caused by the absence of state regulation in credit policy. In such a situation Europe should render financial help to restore financial stability in the country. Stricter budget control should also be resorted to.
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The peculiarity of the global financial crises is that they affect multiple countries. Thus, the most important task of the analysts is to make conclusions and not to let further crises develop.
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