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Sub-Saharan Africa is a country undergone and still undergoing with many various challenges to develop the apartheid policy. Resolving problems in land and infrastructure, poverty reduction, improving good governance, developing their privates sector, reduction of corruption, improving food security, trade policies, development of educational system, making gender equality, strengthening peace and wellbeing, fighting against Hiv/Aids, Malaria, and other diseases etc.
This country Sub-Saharan Africa still remain poor due to many reasons such as physical environment, colonization, inappropriate development strategies, and fast growth of population are the main areas they have to overcome with. This is a place isolated according to the physical geography due to its deserts, cliffs and waterfalls and much of coastal area. These physical features making restrictions to receive other beneficial contacts with the rest of the world therefore it is left to develop on its own without sharing ideas and good with the other countries. According to its great size, tropical climate the development is not possible within a lesser time period. Even they receive many aids it is difficult to deliver to the places where they need due to lack of harbor, infrastructure facilities and existence of many communicable diseases.
The good and the bad outcomes have been developed slowly. Apartheid governmental policy has been continued for many years and after the implementing land reform the ownership of 85% of the land by the whites and the disputes of lands solved according to the legal structure. This is the best development done and this made people to have their own plots of land, to build their own houses, keep their own cattle and to obtain their own agricultural income for their families. The conflicts between Blacks and whites regarding lands, reduced after the land reform policy established (Power of Space). With the road and rail road development strategy, establishment of harbors, air ports, markets, schools, and other facilities developed as well.
Trade between Arabs and Saharans developed; Arab traders crossed Sahara and established trading posts. Due to this the slave trade also began, Europeans increased this slave trade as well and at the time Africa started trading with the rest of the world but to Africa’s detriment. More came to trade with Saharans more taken their wealth without developing them. Sub Saharan Africa is a continent rich in resources. However, this resource wealth has also fuelled and exacerbated many regional and intrastate wars etc.
According to the tropical climate, lack of knowledge, facilities, slave trade and the traders visits the deadly diseases increased. The control of HIV/AIDS on the people of Africa is of a measure that neither African governments nor the international community have yet to come to terms with. While only one in seven of the world’s peoples live in Africa, Africans account for two-thirds of all the people living and dying with AIDS. Without a healthy community, economies cannot show and development occurs. Unfortunately, in Saharan Africa are plagued by weakening health conditions such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. This is the worst mechanism established with the other developments.
Agriculture is a sector dominated by the poor Saharan Africans. 70% of the population is involved in farming approximately. Few years ago it was 85% and now there are many other trades developed to make it a reduction of 15%. Also the people migrate to many other countries as well for employment. Sub Saharan countries agricultural contribute at least 40% of exports, 30% of GDP, up to 30% of foreign exchange revenues, and a massive 70% of employment in that region (Economist). However, agriculture has repeatedly been overlooked as a catalyst for development within Sub Saharan Africa. There is a growing recognition that investment in agriculture both by developing and donor countries had declined. This decline was a reflection of the point that agriculture had fallen out of favour as a development priority for African countries.
Gender equality is a challenge, but it also represents a serious opportunity. The empowerment of women, with their strong economic role, and the need to ensure that young girls and women have access to training and education opportunities, will lend strategic leverage to economic growth. Women play a key economic role in Sub Saharan Africa. Governance is improving and the idea that the benefits of economic growth should be shared equitably and transparently is taking hold (Economist). While in many cases democratic institutions remain weak and “one-party rule” continues in principle, 43 of 48 sub-Saharan African countries have held multi-party elections in recent years. The African Union has vowed not to recognize governments that come to power through non-democratic means.
Economist convinced that these recent improvements are indicative of a general shift in Africa towards sustained economic growth. Due to the widespread challenges to economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and its divergence from the rest of the world economy, incremental changes in pockets of the continent are insufficient. According to World Bank reports the development of the poorest region is very slow but trying to pick its trends (World Bank).