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Forensic Science

The diverse chemical and physical fiber nature are significant in the analysis of a crime scene in the forensic sciences. The fibers are often shed in many cases without realization and notice and have a vital utility in the connection of a variety of actors from the criminal activities together. The chemical and fiber substances that are collected include the paint samples, solvents, cosmetics and soil. The biological samples that are regularly collected include the tissue samples, semen, hair and blood. The physical samples include the fingerprints, fragments of various instruments, shells, recorded voices, fibers and computer discs. Physical evidence is often from substances that are not living whereas the biological evidence originates from living things. It is always assumed that the perpetrator often leaves behind traces behind due to the close contact they had with the objects in the scene. These evidences are found in minute proportions commonly referred to as trace evidence. Additionally, properties of impression marks are vital in the collection of impression evidence (Owen, 2000).

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For the biological traces, the chemical properties that are expected to be found include the DNA, which is characteristically different and unique in all the living things. The processed DNA samples are thus analyzed to identify their origin. The identification of the particular DNA will help in the classification of its origin from either animal or human. This will further be able to classify the species of the living organism that was involved. Blood samples, for example, can be analyzed to attain their chemical properties, which include the DNA, alcohol components, drugs and other substances that could be present in it (Saferstein, 2000). 

On the other hand, the chemical traces collected are to undergo a quantitative and qualitative analysis to ascertain their chemical properties. The testing of the physical traces also aids in the establishment of the presence of radioactive materials or substances, toxic chemicals as well as biological toxins. In evidence involving a firearm, the analysis could go further to prove the chemicals used in the firing, maintenance, powder residue and the shot patterns (Kelly, 1998).

The collection of physical evidence is essential as it captures and analysis the collected samples to identify a match. The fingerprints, for example, are unique and different to all human beings. No person in the world has been identified to have an identical figure print to the other human being. The physical evidence is crucial in the comparison of identity. It is also vital to note that the synthetic and natural polymers are significant in this process. They represent a majority of the utilized trace evidence. The polymers are essential in the production of fibers and are specific as well as unique to the particular fibers (Bodziak, 2002).

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The forensic sciences use a variety of methods in the analysis of their samples. These methodologies are incorporated in the forensic laboratory examination with special microscopes and other assorted laboratory techniques and equipments that are aimed at eliminating error. The analysis ensures that professional and the code of ethics are observed in the process. The process also ensures that they follow the Crime Laboratory Directors guide and principles (Saferstein, 2000).

Prior to the collection of evidence, the forensic team is to obtain a search warrant from the respective authorities. The team is to secure the premises prior to any collection of evidence. This is to be done by establishing a crime scene perimeter around the car dealer’s offices and not to allow any unauthorized personnel to enter or leave the premises. The team is to be divided into three groups, which will consist of parties that will collect the oral interview evidence from the proprietor. The second group is to collect all the physical evidence from the physical evidence from the offices and sales rooms, which will include the vehicle documents, service records, mileage records and account books. The team is to put on protective gears, which include the hand gloves in order not to tamper with any evidence. The entire venue that is searched is to be numbered and photographed. This is to correctly indicate the origin of the collected evidence. The third group is to secure the area and ensure the persons in the premises do not leave. Similarly, other unauthorized personnel do not enter the premises as the activity progresses (Saferstein, 2000).

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The team is to begin by collecting the susceptible evidence and have it placed in clear bags and labeled including labeling of the place it was found. A sketch of the venue under search is to be drawn. In the proves where persons are to use collect evidence involving finger prints, the use of the special powder is a must as it will adhere to the oil that is normally found on the human fingers. A special tape is to be used in lifting the detected print and placed on the glass slide that is to be provided for by the team leader. The evidence is then to be sealed in a plastic evidence bag to avoid contamination. Photographs of the finger print scene are to be taken as a proof. Other larger pieces of evidence are to be picked with plastic gloves and be placed in separate bags for investigation. The evidence collected is to be assembled in labeled evidence boxes for easy collection. The analysis is to be conducted differently in the laboratories (Kelly, 1998).

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