Effects of Genetics
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For many years, there has been a minimal doubt concerning genes’ effect on the human’s personality. Researchers tried to examine the ethical context raised by the behavioral genetics. Despite some complications, like existing of more than one gene that may contribute to a trait, there are some ways to ethically determine the effect of genetics and context on the behavior of dominance (Beyleveld, 2000).
In determining the effect of genetic on developing of any individual, there is a need to uphold the ethical issues. These issues need to be deliberated while using genetic testing for investigating individual genetic information (Beyleveld, 2000). Ethical matters that should be adhered to in such case are generated from the shared ownership and nature of the genetic information, limitations of genetic testing, inappropriate applications of genetic testing, the potential for discrimination and, finally, the patenting of genes.
The information produced from a genetic test differs from any other health information. Therefore, the rapid improvement in genetic testing and analysis has been driven by the Human Genome Project. In ethically determining the effects of genetics and context on the behavior of dominance, the genetic services work in a framework of integrating several principles. The main of them is justice, which addresses the two chief themes (Plows, 2011). The right to the lowest standard of health care incorporates the values concerning public welfare and justice. Justice also works under the theme of equity of access the services and data regardless of place of residence, ethnicity, religion, age or disability.
The person undertaking the testing also needs to be conscious of her or his obligations and responsibilities because of the nature of genetic information shared. The family members may be informed concerning the outcomes of the genetic analysis. Obligation and responsibility, however, need to be balanced with the right of people to choose to know or not to know their personal genetic information. The emphasis should be put on the right of the person to choose, which makes a genetic counseling essential after and before a genetic testing. This ensures that all the implications of undertaking testing, including sharing of personal information, are understood (Plows, 2011).
Another way to ethically determine the effects of genetics is by avoiding discrimination. It is significant to avoid discrimination and offer better support services for families and people with genetic disorders. The deficiency of acceptable services for people with genetic disabilities weakens the principle of free choice for couples at risk of having children with genetic disabilities (Plows, 2011). In providing information to such people or couples, it is essential to be impartial as possible and evade any action that could be taken as intimidating.
Planned programs can include voluntary choices. This can further enhance in ethically determining effects of genetics and context on the behavior of dominance. The examples of the intended programs are provided by some countries that have introduced carrier screening. The programs were navigated on a volunteer basis with the collaboration of the communities involved. The main purpose of such programs was to decrease the occurrence of certain severe heredity disorders such as beta thalassaemia (Beyleveld, 2000).
Finally, public education can be an ideal way of determining effects of genetics and context on the behavior of dominance. The main objectives of genetics can be most significantly fulfilled in the context of an educated and informed public. Education about human genetics and reproduction should be made a part of the educational heritage of each and every person. Eventually, the study about genetics and dominance will be attained through education in schools. In order to spread some information on genetics to every pupil, it is essential to define the simplest, fewest and most recent pieces of genetic information that can be included in the study of genetics and dominance (Beyleveld, 2000).
Behavior is described as a foundation of individuality, which is generally considered to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The behavior traits include personality, intelligence, antisocial behavior and sexual orientation among others. Most of the behavioral characteristics are heritable. Various studies on genes that influence behavior have confirmed the existence of the interrelationship between genetics and behavior (Strickberger, 2006). The genetic segment in the human genome has actually been identified and associated with a particular behavioral trait.
Studies have also proven that it is not essentially possible to isolate a gene that causes a particular behavior, because behavior is usually influenced by numerous genes, which act together in order to produce a specific response. Furthermore, behavior depends on the interaction of multiple genes sequences with the environmental influences. Nevertheless, the absence or presence of a single gene may actually predispose an individual to alcoholism, enhanced intelligence or even increase irritability (Strickberger, 2006). Traditional belief stated that the genetic influences on behavior tended to be critical only during infancy and were superseded by the environmental influences during later stages of maturation. However, the recent genetic research on behavior has fundamentally supported the contrary conclusion. It has been found that genetic influence actually intensifies through adolescences (Strickberger, 2006).
Mental illnesses are normally found in different families. Majority of studied behaviors appeared to be heritable. For instance, the cases of schizophrenia are usually low among the average people. However, the offspring of schizophrenic are usually more than ten times likely to get the disorder (Levine, 2004).
In genetics, dominance is the relationship between the alleles of a gene. The dominance occurs when one allele passes the expression of the other alleles located on the same locus. For instance, if a pea plant has alleles T for tallness and t for shortness, the T allele is usually an incomplete dominant over t. This is because phenotypically, the only trait of tallness will be expressed. Therefore, genetically, T is partially masking the expression of t.
Dominance normally influences the phenotype, which is derived from the genes of an organism. However, it does not influence the way of genes inheriting. An absolute dominance takes place when the heterozygote phenotype is unclear from that of the homozygous parent (Levine, 2004). However, in some instances, the heterozygote normally displays a phenotypic characteristic, which is an intermediary of the phenotype of homozygote parents. This usually occurs between the homozygous dominant and the homozygous recessive.
The intermediate phenotype is normally the demonstration of the partial dominance. When it arises, a wide number of phenotypes can be witnessed among the offspring. It is also worthy to note that none of the flower colors is usually fully dominant. For instance, when a red flower is blended with homozygous white, this normally results in a number of pink-shaded flowers. In other terms, it means that there is nothing different about the way these alleles are inherited. However, the way the alleles determine the expressed characteristics while combining is quite different (Levine, 2004).
Co-dominance normally occurs when the phenotype of both parents is instantaneously expressed in the same progeny. In specific terms, it means that the alleles from each homozygotes parent combine in the offspring, which makes the offspring display both phenotypes simultaneously. Co-dominance normally occurs in individuals with ABO blood group. Genetics also plays an influential role in over dominance (Levine, 2004). This occurs when genetic interaction in an offspring results in expression of a physical characteristic that is outside the range defined by both parents. It usually happens when the heterozygote has a great phenotype as compared to either of its parents. The most common case of over dominance occurs in the alleles that code for sickle cell anemia (Levine, 2004).
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