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Many children the world over have been exposed to one form of abuse or the other with or without their consent. Researchers have argued that child maltreatment is broadly exercised (Greenberg, Warwar & Malcolm, 2008). While child abuse and neglect can be open to broad scrutiny, there is no standard or universal definition of the subtypes. Different professionals have put forward several ideas to help define and understand these concepts.
It is imperative to understand the subtypes before examining whether providing access to resources to keep the child at home with the caregiver is a better option than removal of the child from home.
Child abuse refers to any intentional or unintentional behavior by caregivers, parents, older adolescents, or any other adult that is outside the standards of conduct, and involves considerable risk of causing emotional or physical harm to a child or young individual (Kirst-Ashman, 2012). These behaviors which include the acts of commission, such as abuse, and omission, such as neglect, may be deliberate or unintentional.
The malpractice is mostly divided into neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, and exposure to family violence (Kirst-Ashman, 2012). The most common form of child abuse is neglect. It is the continuous failure to cater for a child’s basic wants. A child may be left dirty or hungry, without shelter, supervision, or medical care. They may not get the affection and attention that they need. Neglect may expose a child to danger, physical or emotional harm.
Abuse of children seems prevalent in the society because as they become older, children depend on older people and other adults. Approximately 2 million children are victims of child maltreatment each year in the United States (Reinert & Edwards, 2009). Child care workers, relatives, parents, and teachers provide young people with the affection, guidance, and support that they need. While no one would want to see children live with anger, neglect, or fear, no individual is born as a caregiver. Sometimes, these people may make mistakes that offend or hurt youngsters.
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Getting the right information is an important element of any research project. The process involved analyzing the best channels that had child abuse reports, studies or researches at disposal. Many options were available, but the Internet and a number of books from the library were regarded as the best option. Solid research was conducted in order to get the evidence presented in the paper.
To start with, for online search, it was imperative to highlight major subtypes of child abuse. The paper employed the use of critical search terms, i.e., child abuse and neglect, interventions for child abuse and neglect, child abuse prevalence, forms of child abuse, research theories on child abuse, provision of resources as a form of remedy for child abuse, child abuse reports, and critics of child abuse among others.
Google, Yahoo, and Bing were critical search engines that aided in the online research. Many studies have been conducted on this topic, and substantial findings have been discovered. Understanding of the behavioral, psychological, and physical effects on those children who experience neglect or abuse is considered significant. Relevant remedies have been suggested with the emphasis on provision of resources to the caregivers as opposed to withdrawal of the child from the family.
The family systems theory, a common theory of psychology concerning the relations amongst family members, explains that the conduct of a member of a family cannot be understood in seclusion but must be examined in a family context (Greeberg, Malcolm & Warwar, 2008). Most stout emotional stressors are the result of occurrences that take place within a family. The stressors should be resolved as soon as possible because they are risk factors for the incidence of abuse.
The intergenerational transmission theory proposes that several levels of exposure distress relating to abuse can lead to the possibility of involvement in an abusive relationship at some later stages in life.
Interventions and Treatment
Child abuse is a staid problem. It can have lasting detrimental effects on the victims. The goals for child abuse prevention are always clear: to stop child neglect and abuse from occurring in the first place. Many parties are profoundly involved in the development and implementation of remedy programs for child neglect and abuse. Studies have indicated that the occurrence of abuse can reduce with the increase of measures that protect children (Kirst-Ashman, 2012). Child maltreatment prevention occurs according to the measures that include primary, secondary, and additional prevention programs.
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Maltreatment prevention involves influencing individual relationships and behaviors among families, neighbors, culture of the society, and community engagement. Preventive strategies mean implementation of effective programs that make emphasis on the attitude change and amending policies and societal rules to create a stable and safe environment.
It is unfortunate that child abuse and neglect can go unseen for years. However, when detected, the most usual type of treatment employed is therapy. Most therapeutic prevention methods focus on the parent and the chance to enhance parenting abilities. Nonetheless, based on the benefits seen in children who are engaged in the treatment, there have been overall added benefits for an ideal long-term outcome. One such study examined cohesive child-parent cognitive behavioral therapy outlook (CBT) (Currie & Spatz, 2010). The study focused on administering adaptive coping tactics to parents as well as non-violence disciplining methods. In the case of children, the research emphasized the behavior management techniques, corrective feedback, and mental coping skills among others (Currie & Spatz, 2010).
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Another form of therapy used is the emotional focused therapy (EFT). This is commonly used in short-term scenarios and is applied to various types of societal population. The study by Greeberg, Malcolm & Warwar (2008) examined the efficiency of EFT to aid in forgiveness and emotional resolution. It uses therapeutic methods, for example, the ‘empty-chair’ discourse to resolve sadness and anger, besides facilitating grieving. In the study, the psychologists found that an upsurge in acceptance and forgiveness lead to a decrease in the general symptom distress.
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