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Reliability can be associated with quality of measurement. The open meaning of reliability is consistency of measurement or repeatability of measurement. Reliability estimate can be grouped into several general classes. For example the “test-retest reliability” in this kind of reliability is based on assessing the consistency of a measure from one time to another. In this approach it assumes that there is no substantial change in the construct being considered between the two occasions, when measured twice the correlation between the two will depend on the time elapses, the shorter the time gap the greater the correlation and verse versa. This shows that the two observations are related; hence correlation is the test-retest estimate of reliability. Problem associated with this is that when the time interval is longer, resulting to lower correlation. These shows the difference in relation between the two observations, for instance a student has to perform in class and at the same time perform in co-curriculum activities this are related events if time gap is deferent then one of the activities will be affected that is more time in co-curriculum will affects class performance.
Validity refers to the approximate truth of inferences, proposition or conclusion. There are different kinds of validity, there is external validity which involves generalizing from once study context to other people, places, or time. In studies external validity can be explained using sample model where the sample is taken from the general population to represent the entire population. It can affect the study since there are three ways that cannot be generalized people, place and time. For eample, if smoking cessation study is carried out the week after the result of the Surgeon General was well-publicized about the latest smoking and cancer studies, one will get different outcome than if it had been done the week before, these shows how validity will affect the study.
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Reliability can be necessary but not ample stipulation for validity. The reading “All men green” it was not clear how all men can be green, this shows that the conclusion arrived at to say that all men are green was not valid. The clarity of the statement was not sufficient, it state that if all men green and green things are grasshoppers then men are grasshoppers. Though it is a valid logical argument the conclusion is incorrect hence there is no clarity. The argument was also confusing because if all green things are grasshoppers then men who were also green were grasshoppers but men do not resemble grasshoppers. It is clear that there can be reliability without validity that is reliability is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity, for instance necessary and ample conditions are a staple of any logic class.
If assumed that the conclusion was true and it cannot be logically be deduced from the premises then the argument will be invalid, these shows that reliability does not necessarily depend on validity but validity must be sufficiently dependent on reliability to draw its conclusion that’s valid is not equivalent to true, validity does not exist without reliability. For a logical argument the distributed terms in the conclusion are also distributed in the premise and also the negative conclusions should also matches the negative premises. Thus concepts should be flexible to be measured to a certain its valid logiic.
In Wysocky article 10, it’s a research about an epidemiological survey on the presence of toxic chemical in soaps and cosmetics used by adolescent female students from a Nigerian university. The research was conducted through the use of questionnaires; it revealed that most of the female student uses these cosmetics for bleaching. Some of the student developed negative effects on using these cosmetics due to the chemicals contents. This made the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) a regulatory body in Nigeria to stipulate that all active ingredients used in manufacturing of drugs, soaps and cosmetics must be printed on the packaging materials. Thus the study was to evaluate the presence of toxic chemical (hydroquinone and mercuric iodide) in cosmetic and soaps used by adolescent female students from a Nigerian university and the chemical health implication associated with them. Relating this article with our topic it’s clear that concepts were turned into measures. The concept was to know the effects on using the cosmetics among the adolescent female students and it was revealed that it had a negative effect, these lead to measures being put in place by the regulatory body NAFDAC, in this case concept was turned to measures to help in control of infections.
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Concepts can be measured to some extent to ascertain their validity. For an argument to be logical its reliability and validity should be measured to get the relationship between the two, to help in coming up with a concrete conclusion, hence concepts can be turned into measures for conceptualization. And also concepts when turned into measure will help in prevention of certain incidences.
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