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Research is a systematic investigation into new or existing knowledge. It is done to decipher new or existing problems, support or develop theorems or confirm previous work. Scientific knowledge is provisional, and all empirical findings are in principle problematic. They are subject to further investigation. Apart from seeking more accurate confirmations of present claims to knowledge, research has an equally vital role of generating new claims (Rubbin et al, 2010). Logically problem formulation is the first step towards proper research.
The issues present or those that occurred in a specific period are the ones that prompt a researcher to weave a research. Proper problem formulation brings about a clear and firm justification and encourages hypothesis testing. When a question on variables creating the problem comes up, whether they are independent or act together, there is a need to define problems explicitly in advance of research and show how they are linked.
Problem formulation is subjective. This is because individual researchers have their own goal of conducting research, and they base it on either personal experience or previous research done by somebody else. They put it in their own view and therefore, research to find out more on that topic.
Conceptualization is formulating an idea and then broadening it in terms of theories of a specific discipline (Babbie, 2011). A clear purpose and a set of questions are the sole guides to proper conceptualization. It is a crucial part that establishes the focus of the research. It also gives it a general perspective and the time horizon (Nuyts, 2011). One has to develop a design that will act as a guide throughout the research process.