Alegado, Dean T. “The Filipino Community in Hawaii: Development and Change,” Social Progress in Hawaii, 33.1(1991), 13-34.
This article looks at the immigration patterns of the Filipino community. This immigration is in the article divided into major historical periods, the first being 1906-1933. The article relates the Filipino immigration at this time to the availability of work in industries. As the article holds, the immigration in this first period was boosted by the HSPA (Hawaii Sugar Planters Association). The second immigration period looked at in the article is the period after the Second World War (1940s). As the article postulates, the immigration at this time was promoted by the industries such as plantation and warehousing which were taking up Filipinos. The article follows this trend in immigration into the 1950s and 1960s.
The hypothesis in the article that the Filipinos were mainly settling in the industrialized regions of Hawaii is supported in the article by evidence of the unions which came up in most of the Hawaii’s urban areas such as UFCH (United Filipino Council of Hawaii) which tackled Filipino immigrants’ issues. Besides this historical account of the Filipino immigration, the author also provides a rich expose of the current immigration and settlement patterns of the Filipino and satisfies the view that the Filipino still settle in industrial centers than in rural. This article presents enough historical data from the 19th and 20th century to support the discussion on immigration and industrialization in the United States especially on the impacts on the key sectors of the industrialized economy that benefited from the immigration.
Cavaioli, Frank. “Patterns of Italian Immigration to the United States,” The Catholic Social Science Review, 13.3 (2008), 213-229.
This article looks at the historical trends in the immigration patterns of the Italians and how their immigration impacted the country. The historical accounts in this article are divided into periods. The first period looked at is the immigration between 1880 and 1920. The article identifies this period to have evidenced a high immigration of the Italians into the United States. Numbers are used here to make this point clear. The second period looked at in the article is the immigration of Italians between 1901 and 1920. As the article recounts, it was in this period that there was a record immigration of the Italians. From this, the article presents the qualities of the immigrating Italians and holds that most of the Italians who immigrated in these periods were those seeking employment in industries and thus settled in the industrialized regions. The article also identifies the present trends and identifies that the immigration of the Italians continue to be for the purpose of seeking employment and thus they settle in industrialized areas. I find this article as presenting a rich historical account on the discussion of the historical immigration patterns and the impact of this immigration on the economic fortunes of the industrialized regions in the country in the 19th and 20th century.
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Isserman, Andrew “U.S Immigration Policy and the Industrial Heartland: Laws, Origins, Settlement Patterns, and Economic consequences.” Urban Studies, 30.1 (1993), 1-36.
This article looks at the immigration trends into the United States before and after the creation of immigration laws of the year 1965. In the article, these immigration trends are traced from how they economically impacted the industrial regions in the country; called industrial heartland. Among the key concerns of the article is the mass immigration into the country witnessed in the period between 1820 and 1989. The history presented in the article establishes the notion that manufacturing centers including Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, as well as Wisconsin were the active recipients of the immigrants in the mass immigration between 1820 and 1989. The article also traces the impacts of this immigration into the early 1920s. In the view of the article, by 1929, the immigration had boosted these regions to account for more than 43 percent of country’s total earnings. Historical accounts provided in the article that relate to policy include the 1875 immigration act and the amendments to this act which were done in 1903, 1907, 1917, 1952, and then the far reaching changes of 1965. The accounts provided in this article present information on the history of the American immigration policy, trends, and their relationship with increasing economic fortunes for the industrialized regions in the country in the 19th and early 20th century. I find the conclusions reached in this article important in the historical discussion of the trends of immigrations into the united states in the 19th and 20th century, especially their affinity for settling in the already industrialized regions
All the three articles analyzed herein look at the immigration debate. They all relate immigration to industrialization. The first two articles confine themselves to specific immigrating communities. The first looks at the immigration of the Filipinos and the other looks at the immigration of the Italians. These are two minority communities in the United States thus a point the two articles share in their discussion. The major concern of the first two articles is the period of the 1800s to the early 1900s. The third article looks at the policies which influenced immigration patterns. It also highlights the trends in immigrations. This article identifies the late 1800s and early 1900s as the period when there were increased changes to immigration policy in the country. Generally, all the three articles identify periods of immigration into the country. All identify the mid to late 19th century to early 20th century as the period for highest immigration. All the three articles also connect immigration to industrialization. For all the three articles, immigration in 1800s and 1900s is connected to employment in industries and thus in industrialized regions. This connection is indeed the hypothesis thus the major concern of the three articles. From reading these three articles, I find it easier to fully discuss U.S immigration trends, policies, and demographic details from as early as 1820 to late 1900s. The articles also fully inform me on the trends today.
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