According to Unal, Critchley, and Capewell (2004), the rates of coronary heart diseases in United Kingdom have been decreasing since 1970s. They conducted a study using a model known as IMPACT mortality model that mainly analyzed the effectiveness of cardiological treatment in England. From their findings, they discovered that between 1981 and 2000, the mortality rates due to coronary heart diseases in England had decreased by 62 % in males and 45 % in females between the age of 25 years and 84 years. Bajekal, Scholes, Love, Hawkins, O’Flaherty, Raine and Capwell (2007) supported the findings of the above researchers by stating that between 2000 and 2007, the mortality rates of the people of England due to coronary diseases has been reducing by approximately 6 % each year. From their findings, they discovered that there was a decrease of about 38,000 deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases in 2007 compared to the previous years.
Bajek et al (2012) argued that the major factor that caused this decrease was a reduction in systolic blood pressure among the people of England who were not on hypertension medication. Furthermore, they argued that this decrease was caused by a decrease in the level of cholesterol among the English people by 6 %, a decrease in smoking habits by 3 % and improved physical activities among the English people by 2 %. However, they pointed out that the body mass index had increased by 9 percent and diabetes levels by 10 % and this threatened to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases among the English people. The findings of Unal, Critchley and Capwell (2004) on the main reason of causing the decline in mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases contradict with the findings of the above researchers. This is because they argued that the main reason that caused this decline was treatment of individuals suffering from cardiovascular diseases. They further stated that there was 11 % increase in secondary prevention methods against cardiovascular diseases. However, they agreed with the findings of Bajekal et al (2012) by stating that there was an increase in the levels of obesity and diabetes in England.
Bazain (2012) stated that people of England were practicing healthy lifestyles and that could be the reason attributing to the decline in deaths due to coronary heart diseases. He stated that doctors were advising their patients on eating a balanced diet consisting of plenty of fruits and vegetables, starch foods and discouraging their patients from eating foods with high levels of fats and sugars. Shi & Sigh (2011) supported the argument of the above researcher by claiming that patients in England were concentrating on reducing the amount of fat in their diet by replacing the amount of saturated fats in their diets with small amounts of mono and polyunsaturated fats.
The Government of England has also been taking efforts in order to reduce the mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases. According to Myat, Haldar and Redwood (2011), in the year 2011 the Health Authority, Local Authority and Primary Care Trusts developed a joint program that aimed at reducing the mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases. This program helped to formulate policies that aimed at reducing the level of smoking among the citizens of England, educating the citizens on the benefits of promoting healthy eating and emphasizing on the benefits of physical activities in order to reduce overweight and obesity. Hatchett and Thompson (2002) added that the government of England has helped reduce cardiovascular rates in this country since it formed the British Heart Foundation. This foundation helps to conduct research on the causes of heart diseases, how to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these diseases. It also provides high standards of care for all the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, it funds nationwide campaigns that help in creating public awareness about how to reduce the risk of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases.
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To conclude, the literature from the above scholars reveal that the mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases has been decreasing in England. This is mainly caused by the reduction of smoking habits by the people of England, regular exercises and eating of healthy diet. Furthermore, the government of England provides funding to British Health Foundation that has helped in conducting research on prevention and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, there were gaps on the research by the above scholars. They mainly concentrated on men participants in their research. Furthermore, the research by Bajek et al may have had inaccurate data since the model that they adopted explained only 86 % of the data generated. Future research needs to be conducted on how to reduce the levels of obesity and diabetes in England in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
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