A) Teenagers that suffer from autism may display different types of challenging behaviour, such as problems with social communication (echo-lactic speech, irrelevant factual comments, and incessant talk), social interaction (isolated, passive, and strange), and social imagination (difficulties in generalizing problems, inaccurate repetition of the same stylistic patterns, and problems with planning ahead) (Emerson & Einfield 2011). Moreover, teenagers with autism may face learning disabilities since they cannot adapt to the big number of new subjects, keep track of the learning materials, and change classes. Additionally, they may strangely behave in the period of puberty. Teens with autism do not know how to control their verbal and non-verbal means of communication. That is why educational institutions should provide more directions for teens with autism comparing to their peers, especially in the field of sexual development. What is more, teenagers may not know the importance of hygiene and grooming. Thus, it is highly recommended to address this issue. Finally, teenagers with autism may suffer from challenging behaviour, such as withdrawn from the social world. For instance, they can be frightened to communicate with others or vice verse, they can be extensively willing to chat. However, others will not accept them. In this case, they become less confident and confused. If to talk about challenging behaviour of drug addicts, it is known that these people are dependent on the substance. Thus their brain can totally deteriorate the focus of coherent thoughts. Moreover, they become increasingly aggressive, depressed, and lethargic. In the social context, they will be isolated and prone to be sentenced because of uncontrollable emotions and impulsive decisions. Consequently, they can suffer from heart, skin, and transmitted diseases. Furthermore, about ill health: the collapsed veins and tissues, impairment of memory, decrease of motivation, and weight loss should be mentioned (Paley & Brooke 2006).
B) If the person is suffering from challenging behaviour caused by autism, it can influence not only the affected person, but also medical workers. It is advisable to ensure that health care providers have the right skills and knowledge to work alongside with these people. The health care employees should provide patient-centred care and respect health care rights of patients. The effect of challenging behaviour on the medical organization can be various. For example, the medical provider may be unable to handle the abrupt and extremely aggressive behaviour of the patient. In this case, medical organizations should provide various trainings and projects that can help the employees overcome the difficulties (Institute for Public Care 2012). Moreover, health care organization should ensure different psychological programs not only for customers, but also for employees, since daily care of mentally sick people can deteriorate psychological condition of caregivers. One of the most useful acts that deal with the rights of health care providers is Health and Social Care Act 2001 and 2003, whichensureshigh protection of medical workers from exposure of risks of challenging behaviour (Legislation.gov.uk 2003). Furthermore, The Data Protection and Freedom of Information Act of 2013ensures the possibility of different hazards that can evoke at the time of patient caring. According to this act, an employer should provide full control of comfortable conditions of the working environment. What is more, an employer should pay attention to the minimal deterioration of the worker’s health that is caused by inadequate working surrounding and actions of a patient. Finally, the health care provider has to follow the code of ethics that requires to be honest and accountable; to promote cultural change that helps to be flexible with a customer from different culture or ethical group; to maintain professional and personal development; to satisfy customer’s needs; to conduct close collaboration with the patient’s family; to possess excellent verbal and nonverbal communication, and to prepare oneself for challenging behaviour (Stirk & Sanderson 2012).
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C) It is clear that people with Alzheimer’s may become aggressive or upset due to minor stress. As a result, their behaviour may be unpredictable that can even hurt others. The following strategies for working with people with special needs (people with Alzheimer’s) are highly recommended:
- Interact with the patient. Try to encourage him/her with the help of interesting discussion that for sure will not make this patient upset.
- Speak in a quiet and soothing manner.
- Avoid confrontation.
- Avoid perplexed sentences and speedy speech.
- Set clear boundaries: what can provoke depression and aggressive mood.
- Simplify surrounding. Try to hide sharp objects because people with Alzheimer’s may hurt themselves.
- Praise the patient by pointing out on his/her achievements or good work, such as playing football or singing. In case of depression, try to clarify the causes of it by talking to the patient indirectly so that he/she will not understand the main reason of the discussion.
- Try to engage the sick in his/her favourite activities.
- Talk about positive events of the person’s past.
- Play different styles of music and ask the patient to clap his/her hands. It can improve the patient’s mood and physical condition.
- Use humour and jokes, which the patient can easily understand. It can be some jokes from favourite TV shows or programs.
- Always follow the doctor’s prescriptions and give medicine to the patient (such as mood stabilizer) (Paley & Brooke 2006).
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