African American Studies

1. At the times when the Civil War got to its end, and the slaves were freed, the Black people still had experienced oppressive issues, like poverty and discrimination. Those times were significant to the American society as a building of the foundation of the equality of the White and the Black peoples. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois were the Black leaders who became the civil rights protectors and proposed their strategies to fight their place in society. Booker T. Washington had come up with a strategy to deal with discrimination thought education. He also believed that the Blacks could work at the factories, which would be beneficial for economy and the “enslaved” black people. Washington was also the first to propagate pursuing education even after school into college, and as a result, developing tolerance from the White to Black people. However, W.E.B. Du Bois opposed to his ideas strongly, explaining that his strategies will only ignite even more oppression from the side of the White citizens. Nonetheless, he promoted the idea that the oppressed Black people had to fight for rights to vote, civil equity, and equal education. Du Bois together with some other activist initiated the creation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP has proved to be an effective power in eliminating racial discrimination that has fought for the rights of the colored people for over a century. On the other hand, one has to remember that no matter which strategies the two activists used both of them put a stepping stone in the sphere of social acceptance of the Black people and recognition of their rights in the USA and worldwide, as well as equalizing them to the White citizens.

2. Back in the times of the slaves, the White citizens have been considered to be the dominant ones over the Black people. After the resolution of the law by Abraham Lincoln, which granted the freedom to all slaves, an organization controlling the rights of the minorities had to be created. The NAACP stands for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People as an organization, which controlled the situation of the people of color in the political, educational, social, and economic environment. The objective of the organization was to try to propagate the equality amongst all the American nations and illiminate the intraracial hatred between the people. It was founded on February 12, 1909 by W.E.B. du Bois, and its activities had been an important step in the civil right movement. This organization encouraged society to try to solve the problem of the social equity and fight intraracial injustices.

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3. In the 20th century the civil movement has begun to take momentum. In 1925, a black labor organization had appeared under the name of the Brothers of Sleeping Car Porters. This organization has been created by Asa Philip Randolph. He was one of the most active America’s civil rights fighters. The activist analyzed the situation on the labor market and conditions, under which the Black people had to live and work, and decided to introduce some of his ideas in order to help stop the struggle. Together with the Brothers of Sleeping Car Porters, he won the working places for the Black people, raising their influence in the society on a higher rank now. Together they had succeeded in convincing the President Roosevelt to ban the discrimination during the Second World War, and after it, as well as sorting the personnel according to their race. Asa Philip Randolph together with the Brothers of Sleeping Car Porters made another significant step in eliminating racial inequality in the USA.

4. During the period of 1910-1930, the Black nation had increased in the number due to the migration. The changes were fast expanding the possibilities and the potential of the towns; therefore, the Blacks were needed to work. Back in the beginning of the 20th century, most African American inhabitants lived in the Northeastern or Midwestern of the United States. Nevertheless, it was safer and better to move to the South. Grace to their own initiative, around 1.6 million migrants left for settling down in the industrial areas. The most active for leaving were the Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi states. One of the major factors, which were pushing people to move, was the lack of life opportunities; new places offered better schools, voting rights, as well as more job opportunities. The people did not require any financial aid from the government and were moving on their own to the big cities, where they could have more opportunities and find jobs, such as meatpackers, stockyard workers, and railroad professionals.

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