English Colonization of North America
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It should be noted that, the latecomers’ to the North-American colonization were the English people. By the time James was settling (1607), the Spanish had colonized much of the Hemisphere already, a practice that made Spain the richest nation by 1500s. As a result, English were forced to colonize America by the tremendous success that was being made by the Spanish.
However, the British exploration and settlement pattern differed much as compared to her neighboring European countries. While Spain and Portugal undertook state-sponsorship kind of colonization, the English people preferred privatization of her exploration process, granting charters as well as letters of Marquis to privatize who were establishing the Colonies of English as enterprises that are money making.
In 1492, King Henry the 7th ended up rejecting the proposal made by Christopher Columbus; that aimed at finding a sea route to Asia, therefore handling the newly-crowned Spanish monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand, a choice jewel for their crowns that were imperial. After knowing the success expedition of Columbus in the modern-Caribbean, Henry the 3rd ended up being eager to amend his earlier mistake. In the process of correcting his mistake, he hired Giovanni Cabot, who was an Italian Explorer, to make an exploration of the Eastern shores of North America as well as searching for a water passage to Asia.
Having five ships with him, Giovanni commonly known as James sailed to North America for the discovery. In this exploration process, Giovanni had discovered the ‘newe founde lande’ currently known as Newfoundland, Canadian province. His findings gave England the foundation for her territorial claims to the whole of North American continent. Cabot in 1498 made another exploration for the English Crown, in which he met misfortune as since that time, he has never been seen a live again.
Due to divisions, political strife gas well as non-ending conflicts with their counterpart France, England was forced to withdraw its colonization race with Spain, but just for a century. During that century, pin the Northern Hemisphere, Spain became unquestioned leading power, where they made lots of silver and gold deposit discoveries. The North American England colonization process was motivated by just a simple explanation. Amongst the factors that lead to this movement included mercantilism, religion, population that was excess as well as political turmoil.
The colonies met lots of problems as well as challenges as they were trying to settle in their new lands. For instance, Jamestown was much swampy; hence there were lots of mosquitoes. In addition, water in the region was undrinkable as it was very dirty. As a result, most of them died from diseases. Another thing was that, the process of governing the colony was also very difficult. The Virginia Company for instance ended up choosing thirteen men to govern the settlement. Due to such huge number, they just quarreled day after day hence their accomplishments were very little, so they did not provide the good direction for the colony’s future. Almost all colonies used to spend most of their time hunting for gold other than planting crops as well as preparing Jamestown for the future.
In addition, the local communities were wary of Englishmen from their first sight. As a result, there were those who welcomed them hospitably, giving them food as well as entertaining them, however, there were those who were very hostile by even discharging their arrows but retreated after the colonists fired their guns. However, when Captain Newport returned to England, the reality downed on those colonists; they were so weakened from sickness as some could hardly stand. most of them died due to famine as well as polluted waters which was full of slime as well as filth, which was a major cause of salt poisoning, typhoid as well as dysentery.
This left only a handful of them surviving, as a result, they become vulnerable to hostile local communities, who took advantage of their less number. Apart from that, in 1609 after the return of Captain Newport, they were also faced with devastating fires, which ended up destroying much of the fort including their dwelling and along with provisions. This made them to start depending on Local communities especially the Indians. In addition, upon their arrivals, they found very little in the manner which local infrastructure waiting for them. Things like accommodation as well as transport were very poor or even none existence.
In dealing with such problems, they started growing crops like tobacco; they learned doing this from the Indians. This was after John Rolfe discovered that James town was very conducive for tobacco planting. Both the soil and climate were all great for such economic activity. In around 1620, the Virginia Company had found a way of making profits after England started importing 30,000 pounds of tobacco every year. Due to the fact tobacco growing was a very hard work, hence they bought slaves to help them do the job, though they latter became cruel to slaves.
For them to survive engaged in trade with the local communities for them to get food for instance, Smith traded with neighboring villages to get food. In addition, this was the time they started plating crops for food. The economy started striving after the Arrival of slaves. Other things that happened to improve live in Jamestown. One of them was that, they set new government. In this government, male settlers owning firms were allowed to select their representatives. They usually met in Burgesses House with the aim of making laws. In addition, they also brought women. In 1608, the first women from England were arrived.
The colonists discovered for them to survive, they have to grow family life. As a result, in 1619, about 100 women arrived in Jamestown. However, in 1622the English settlers were driven a way by the Indians. This made the King by the name James ruled out that the colony governance was poor. As a result, he took charge of Jamestown, making it a royal colony. In around 1611, they started bringing in food, livestock, seeds as well as new settlers and soldiers to their camps. This new leader ship along with supplies rejuvenated the town.
The colony latter changed in many ways. For instance, there was stability and order, as the laws and regulations that were put in place by Gates and de la war were toughened and expanded. This ended up inflicting harsh penalties to law breakers. The colony also recruited new recruits and making investments. After kidnapping the most beloved daughter of Chief Powhatanm, there were negotiations between English and Indians, which resulted to a bargain that ended the five year vicious fighting between them. They all started planting corns, fish, peace and even life together in peace. The Powhatas also ended up learning English, and even converted to Christianity.
After creating a peaceful environment, proper attention was now turned to natural land abundance, despite the focus on gold and tobacco. In 1620, there were some changes that occurred in the colony. For instance, by they decided to come together to make the colony successful. This ended up expanding colony to an extent of consulting each other. At this time, they started feeding on wild game and food they had stored during famine, as they had already enough in the previous harvest.
In the 17th century, continual colonization in American different parts brought changes in many ways. Both the northern, middle as well as Southerners had different religious and climatic factors that made lots of impacts on such changes. The three regions differed extensively from each other. As a result of climatic along with regional factors, agriculture differed greatly. The southerners greatly grew tobacco, rice as well as indigo. On the other hand, the colonies on the northern parts sustained themselves only on small as well as diversified farms and crops.
Due to lack agriculture in the northern region, there was increased trade with Indians and Africa. New Merchants traded items like fish, barrels, staves, grains for molasses, fruits, spices as well as slaves. This increased trade resulted to greater piracy of the seas. On the other hand, the Southern had shad a one crop economy which was fluctuating constantly due to supply, demand as well as climatic factors.
The Southern were also struggling mostly with their social structures. This was based on the fact that, they were short of hands, hence begun buying or trading slaves to work for them. In addition, due to the fact that settlements were set too far, there were no formal education and educational institutions that were prevalent, Except for wealthy families who were hiring tutors. Hence, formal education in the south was absent. On the other hand, the northern colonies had well established formal educational schooling, hence were well educated, prospered and the individuals were much healthy and lived longer. This was attributed to the fact that, people in the region were organized and had relatively successful governmental structures that were put in place.
In conclusion, the process of settlement the English colonies experienced was much different as compared to other colonies in North America. Upon arrival, they encountered lots of problems including diseases, famine and hostile groups. However, they underwent through them by making various changes in their camps like introducing women. at long last, they made bargains with their hostile communities, hence established a very peaceful environment which gave them chances of focusing proper attention to land abundance. However, though all of them were colonies, there existed major regional differences from the North, Middle and the South. In short, there were many regional differences between the south North and the Middle; however, Agriculture, Economy and social differences are just the major three.
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