The Frankfurt School
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The Frankfurt school was a movement that highly contributed to the cultural and ideological battles ranging around our day to day lives. The main aim of this movement was to upraise cultural Marxism at the expense of socialist revolution. The Frankfurt movement was initiated in the Frankfurt University back in the year 1923.
The movement started with a meeting, held in Moscow at Marx-Engels Institute. The main issue that led to the foundation of this movement was the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. The Revolution was expected to be introduced into Europe and the United States, but it did not happen as most people expected. As a result, communists met to investigate on what have happened. This meeting generated various views that at last led to the foundation of the Frankfurt School. The main idea that the school had was to introduce cultural Marxism. This was to be achieved through dejection of the Judaeo-Christian legacy.
The school brought along various ideas: communication rationality, praxis, critical theory, dialectic, privatism and non-identity, which were aided by encouraging people to immigrate in huge numbers. Advanced capitalism, popular culture, psychoanalysis were also among the ideas brought up by the Frankfurt school. In addition, antipositivism also belonged to Frankfurt school’s ideas, which included undermining the good work that schools did thus dejection of teachers as well as school’s authority over its students.
The movement was also interested in developing Freud’s proposal of ‘pansexualism’. This term could either mean mistreatment of one sex group by the other, bringing down how a man and a woman used to relate traditionally or, in other terms, the school advocated for the breakdown of families.
The school also advised people to immigrate into various countries in huge numbers. This was one way of trying to make these peoples identity unrecognized in those states. This was one of the ways of spreading the quite cultural insurgency. It advocated for pupils to be taught about sex and homosexuality in schools, it encouraged people to drink heavily, it also encouraged them not to attend church services, so that these churches could remain empty. “The School undermined schools and teachers authority” (Wiggershaus,1995).
The school was made up of various theorists and authors. As a result, various writings were seen to come from this institution. These included: “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” , “The Fear of Freedom”, “Negative dialectics”, “Minima Moralia”, “Eclipse of Reason”, “Eros and Civilization”, “One-Dimensional man” , “Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere.
“The main authors of the Frankfurt School included Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno. Horkheimer argued that a theory should conform to the ideas in a researcher’s mind rather than any kind of an experience” (Jay,1996). Adorno, on the other hand, argued that capitalism normally fed different individuals with a ‘culture industry product’ in order to keep them both politically apathetic and passively satisfied.
In the contemporary world new authors are either for or against what the previous writers did. For example, Habermas has written a document that opposes Charles Taylor argument on critical theory. In the year 2006 Nikolas Kompridis ,ex-student of Jürgen Habermas, criticized Haberma’s arguments on the critical theory. This resulted in an ultimate break of proceduralist ethics of communicative rationality.
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