Washington Naval Treaty of 1922

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At the Washington Naval Conference held in Washington D. C., Britain, the United States, Italy, France and Japan signed the Washington Naval Treaty in 1922 after the effects of World War I. The terms of this Treaty put limitations on the tonnage and constructions of aircraft carriers, battleships and battle cruisers. Chapter 11 of the Treaty stated which individual ships were to be retained by the Navy from each country. It also stated procedure to be adopted when putting a ship beyond military use. Section II of part 3 of this Treaty laid out the ships to be scrapped.

Malcolm X

Malcolm X was an important Muslim minister who helped to fight for the rights of African Americans in the United States. He became famous as a spokesperson for the Nation of Islam, when he concentrated on the teachings of the supremacy of the blacks. Furthermore, he supported the separation of the Black Americans and the White Americans. Malcolm X was assassinated while addressing the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Manhattan, in 1965.

Neutrality Act of 1935

Roosevelt invoked the Neutrality Act after Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935. The term of this treaty was to impose a general embargo that would control trading of arms and arms materials between parties engaging in war. Moreover, this treaty declared a moral embargo against all the belligerents covering trade not falling under the Neutrality Act. It also stated that Americans travelling on warring ships were travelling at their own risk.

Neutrality Act of 1936

The Act aimed at extending the provisions of Neutrality Act of 1935 to an extra 14 months. However, it failed to provide cover for trucks, companies in the United States engaging in the trade of oil and civil wars. It also added a provision that aimed at preventing provisions of loans to belligerents.

Neutrality Act of 1939

The Act was passed on November 4, 1939 and allowed for the trading of firearms with belligerent nations on a cash and carry basis. It also ended the arms embargo and repealed the Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1937. The citizens of America were barred from entering zones of war together with American ships. In addition to this, National Munitions Control Board was given the task of issuing licenses on all imports and exports involving arms.

Clean Air Act

The Clean Air Act was passed in 1970. It aimed at regulating air emissions from stationery and mobile sources and gave the Environmental Protection Agency the authority of establishing National Ambient Air Control Standards. These standards help to regulate the emissions of hazardous air pollutants thus protecting public health. It has eight components that include programs and activities, emission standards for moving sources, general provisions, noise pollution, acid deposition control, permits and stratospheric ozone protection.

Douglas MacArthur

Douglas MacArthur was an important figure in the history of America since he was the senior military commander of America during World War II, and he led America’s withdrawal from Philippines. Furthermore, he was one of the five men who rose to the rank of General of the United States Army. He was assigned the task of defending the Philippines after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Furthermore, he helped to reconstruct Japan after it surrendered from war. He was also the head of United Nations force that took on the North Koreans in the Korean War.

Affirmative Action

These were measures put by the government of the United States in an effort of reducing racial discrimination, ethnic discrimination, minority discrimination and discrimination towards women. President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 10925 that aimed at ensuring that affirmative action was considered while selecting employment applicants without regarding their, color, creed, race, or national origin. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 helped in ensuring that African Americans and women received equal employment opportunities after World War II.

Manhattan Project

Manhattan Project was a secret military project created in 1942 with an aim of producing the first nuclear weapon in the United States. The project was started because America feared that the Nazi would produce nuclear weapons and use these weapons to attack American soil. Manhattan Project established three main research facilities at Hanford, Washington and Los Alamos. The Laboratory in Los Alamos produced atomic bombs known as Little Boy and Fat Man that were used to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It killed an estimated 70000 people in Hiroshima. The project marked the beginning of atomic age.

Counterinsurgency

Counterinsurgency is a combat against a political rebellion by forces aligned with standing government of the territory in which the combat takes place.  America started using insurgency during the Cold War, because nuclear weapons and the creation of NATO lowered the probability of direct conflict with Soviet Union. Insurgency was also used during the war on Vietnam. After the September 11 attacks by the terrorist, America applied counterinsurgency to curb terrorism, mainly because Islamic groups were using insurgency to overthrow their enemies.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Congress passed this Act in 1964 and it aimed at outlawing all forms of discrimination against women, African Americans and segregation based on race. Furthermore, it provided for equal application of voter registration and abolished the racial segregation in public places, schools and work places. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed this Act into law. It contained 11 titles.

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004

President Bush signed this act into law in December 17, 2004. It gave the department of homeland security the power of taking over the conduction of preflight comparison of information on passengers and Federal Government watch list information on all flights. Furthermore, it established the position of Director of National Intelligence, Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board and National Counterterrorism Centre.

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