Developmental Psychology

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Researchers have tried to find out the relationship between the behavior of individuals, and the attitudes people have with the environment and experiences they undergo. There are different attitudes people have towards the environment. These differences are due to attitudes and behaviors of male and female individuals in the middle age, adolescences, and adult age. The discussion is about the relationship of different people and the environment. There are individuals that have insecure habits while others have secure attitudes. There are attachments associated with the attitudes that people have (Braciszewski  2010).

An attachment refers to the ability of a child being able to associate him or herself with a caregiver. The attachments differ from one child to another depending on the need of the child. The attachments include:

i) Secure attachment

ii) Avoidant attachment

iii) Ambivalent attachment

iv) Disorganized attachment

There are two variables used in this study. The variables include; age and gender. While age affects the activities that a child gets involved in, gender affects the response to which a child has towards a certain action.

Emotional competence refers to the ability of an individual being able to differentiate different scenarios and act on each accordingly. Emotional competence has several aspects involved in it. There are 8 basic emotional skills; ability to recognize other people, ability to use emotional balance, awareness of an individual’s emotions, ability to distinguish a person’s internal instincts, ability to identify a person sympathy and empathy, distinguish external feeling and internal feelings, adaptive coping through self-regulatory strategies, awareness of the roles of emotions in relationships, and emotional self-efficacy. The emotional skills can be further grouped into three basic human emotional functions. These are emotional recognition, emotional understanding, and emotional regulation (Colle and Del Giudice 2010).

Regulation strategies are strategies that different people use in order is able to respond to the different motivations they face from the surrounding. These strategies help them learn how to cope with a different situation as they grow. According to the article there are two distinct strategies i) primary strategy ii) Secondary strategy. Primary strategy is easily developed in children that are secure. According to the author primary strategy in secure children affect regulation of emotions. This is especially articulated to the caregiver that they relate with in their day-today life. This strategy is based on the open expression of emotions especially by the caregivers. This strategy helps the child develop its sense of relation with the environment. As the child develops he or she is able to have self-efficacy, and have a high inclination of getting in active events. In this way, they can be involved in actions that are instrumental and problem solving.

Secondary strategy develops in children that are insecure. They lack confidence of their own. These children will often look up to the caregiver for security when they encounter any threats.  These children often have an attitude of avoidance and are hesitant. They are often keen to note any threats in the surrounding not to make them lose the attention of the care giver and support. They usually have developed a high sense of inferiority complex and a pattern of low self-esteem. While they are expected to have an attitude of helplessness, they divert their attention from these negative environments. They utterly negate such thought. They do jot shoe their fear to the caregivers. This attitude later becomes a habit that will develop to lack of awareness of a person’s negative feelings and emotions.

According to the study there differences in gender based on the attachments patterns.The differences exist especially in some aspects of emotional competence in adults and a few times been found in children. Female individuals are better in in recognition and labeling of emotional expression than men. According to study, it is more vivid in the middle aged children and in the late adolescence age.  Further studies have revealed that the attachments in males begin at the middle childhood age. It then shifts to avoidance towards adolescent children. In females, it becomes more ambivalent in situations of stress (Colle and Del Giudice 2010). 

Emotional discrimination is associated with gender. In the study by (Colle and Del Giudice 2010), results showed that female participants have a higher ability, of emotional discrimination than the male participants. Female children can discriminate emotional expressions better that male children. In different task of verbal labeling, and non-verbal discrimination the female children were seen to perform better than the boys. The attachment type associated with poor emotional discrimination is disorganized attachment. It showed the lowest performance in emotional discrimination.

The disorganize attachment was noted to have effect on emotional regulation especially in the disorganized children. There was a link between emotional regulation and poor cognitive abilities in children with disorganized attachments (Colle and Del Giudice 2010). In conclusion, the attachments have been approved to be related to children’s up growing. The attachment in the middle age closely relate with an individual’s character. The attachments are also sources of differences between one person and another. They determine the ability of a child to establish their emotional competence skills. Therefore, the attachment patterns determine an individual’s emotional competence. These include the facial expressions and emotions.

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