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Child psychology has been known to put its focus on the mind and the child’s behavior from the prenatal stage through the adolescent stage. It does not only deal with how the child develops physically but it also focuses on the mental, emotions and the social development of the child. development of a child does occur both internally which influence on how the child grows in terms of genetics and personal characteristics and the external factors such as the environment which involves the social relationships and the culture in which the child lives in. for instance, relationships with parents, schools and the peers determines on how the child is likely to think, learn and develop (Damon, & Lerner, 2006). Nevertheless, when it comes to the values, customs and shared assumptions and the ways of living, the culture matters a lot and it influences the development of a child. Socioeconomic factors also matter especially when it comes to the education of the child, how much money the family earns, the job they hold and the shelter they receive.
Siblings and Social Development
When we discuss about siblings, what comes into the mind is the brother and sister relationship which has been known to last for a very long time as compared to that of the parents, spouses or even children. Most siblings’ relationships are normally influenced by the way the parents behaves both at home and outside. The example they portray both inside the house and the outside world matters a lot., while marital quality and family conflicts also matters a lot to the child’ development (Wood, et al. 2006). For instance, when their a lot of conflicts in a family, it triggers conflict between the brother-sister relationship, if there is high amount of discord, then we experience high aggression among the children and furthermore, unfulfilling or being unavailable when the child needs you makes the relationship to become more intense among the siblings. It can create a strong bond between the siblings or create enmity. All this depends on the attitudes and behaviors of the parents and the personality of the children.
Treating the child fairly does not mean treating the siblings equally by the parents because both siblings have got those requirements they need from their parents (Myers, 2008). Favoring one sibling while leaving the other can create some aggression and trigger some avoidance between the siblings. Since they sibling stay together as companions for each other for a very long time, it means then that it influences social and cognitive learning. An older sibling becomes the role model or teachers to the young one since the young one is trying to learn from the older one through imitation.
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Poor relationship between the siblings can make the child to be rejected by their peers. One of the factors that can lead to this is the parent-child relationship whereby parental practices do matter a lot when it comes to the child. For instance, coercive discipline from parents such as hitting, bribing or even spanking and the inadequate parental monitoring by being unaware of the child’s behavior or even the presence of the child can pass a negative behavior to the child. These ineffective parenting practices can create a combination of parental tolerance of the sibling conflict thus leading to the high level of sibling interactions (Brain, & Mukherji, 2005).
For the parent to pass better values and install some confidence among the siblings, it is better to note that, some things should not be said before the child for instance, “life is unfair” because whatever you say to the child, it is normally recorded in his brain, children should be given some permission to disagree and make better judgment for them later without favorisim, show them how to make things fair to them by showing them on how to solve some simple problems, create humor to them to tickle their bones. By doing the above, better relationship among the siblings are likely to be experienced.
The Peer Relationships and Social Adjustment in childhood
Social adjustment of the child among his or her peers is very important. This must be shown from home and your growth set-up. For instance children develop bad relationships from home especially through their siblings are likely to become hostile and aggressive (Reid, et al. 2007). This can cause some rejections and social isolations from their fellow peer group. The peer views such kind of behavior as an adolescent stage because of the negative and hostile behavior shown by the child. It is because of this reasons that those who show some competence among themselves are normally accepted (Bjorklund, & Pellegrini, 2000).
With the abve concerning the peers, we can see that a child can develop a cognitive representation of relationships which are meant to give directions to the child on how to interact with the fellow peers. This can be determined by the early maternal care whereby a child develops some behavior that is meant to determine his development in the future life.
The effects of Parental Conflict and Divorce of Children’s Development
Divorce matters among the parents have been regarded to create some negative consequences and little positivity in a child development in terms of adjustments. For instance, children who come from divorced families are likely to experience some financial problems, lower academic achievements, more drug use, and lower rates concerning employment as young adults (Myers, 2008).
For those who experience some parental conflict also have difficulty in adjustment of life. Some of the problems that are likely to be experienced out of parental conflicts are such as the behavior of the child becomes negative, academic problems, disobedience, aggression, delinquency, poor self-esteem, antisocial behavior and depression (Brain, & Mukherji, 2005). This is the less warmth they accord to their children because of more time solving their conflict. These parents are also viewed to be more rejecting, harsher when it comes to discipline, withdrawal from the parental role and more depressed. The only thing that can trigger better child development is to have a better relationship within the family.
Most children acquire their language skills through interactions with more accomplished speakers of the language like the parents, family members, teachers and their fellow older children. This can be done when this group of people communicates to the child so that their language can develop, increase their vocabulary while their grammar becomes more complex. These are the ways in which a child can acquire the language (Sharma, & Sharma, 2006).
Self-Esteem in Children
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A child should have a healthy self-esteem so as to cope with the challenges of the world. This is because those children who have got some confidence in themselves seem to have easier term when solving a problem or a conflict and resisting negative pressures. They always look like kids who own the world by having some fun in themselves (Damon, & Lerner, 2006). They are always realistic and optimistic. Healthy self-esteem comes from the child trying to roll over a dozen times without loosing hope of trying until he accomplishes the mission. Other than trying, being loved can also promote a positive self-esteem in a child.
However those with low-esteem, some challenges do overwhelm them because of some major anxiety and frustrations. These kinds of kids have got some difficulties in problem solving situations. They tend to view themselves as being stupid and can never make it. To avoid such a low self-esteem, parents should watch what they speak in front of their kids because children are always sensitive with what the parents speaks (Reid, et al. 2007). Words such as “Life is hard” should be avoided. Parents should be positive models, identify and give directions to the child’s inaccurate belief, show some affection and some other positive values in life.
Factors Influencing the Development of Emotion Regulations
Emotions is known to be a core power in life of an individual while emotion regulation becomes an important factor when it comes to the child’s early development and this determines the adaptation and the healthy of that child. Nevertheless, some strategies have been applied to show how a child can be influenced in terms of development of emotion regulations (Reid, et al. 2007). The most common strategies are passive disengagement and physical regulation. Those children, who are known to be highly reactive, normally show some deficiency in emotions regulations development. This affects them so much since they feel like they are being neglected by their parents thus having negative perspective about life.
Social Biological influences on the Development of Sex Differences
Here, gender-role development begins at conception. The sex of a new born determines what the kind of a life and roles a child is likely to undergo or perform throughout her life when developing. It becomes an identity to the society (Sharma, & Sharma, 2006). For instance, when a boy is born you can see some activeness in him showing the influence or impact he is likely to have to the society in future.
Cultural Differences in Child Rearing
Different countries and society have got different cultures which are meant to instill some positive values to the child in order to enhance his development. For instance when we focus at the China and Israel cultures, there is that believe of serving the nation. That is why parents, religious leaders and teachers focus on the virtues to be encouraged to the child, lawfulness, cooperativeness, studiousness, dedication to the specific principles of the nation while other nations, children are born and raised to serve the aims of the family or clan (Reid, et al. 2007). This shows that child rearing comes from the expectation of the culture.
An Evolutionary Perspective on childhood
Here, what is seen are those risks children undergo when they are on the playground without their parents involvement. This normally happens when a child attempts doing something they have never done before on the play ground of which might turn out to be risky or successful (Lerner, 2002). This is seen to be some of the challenges the child undergoes through so as to stimulate themselves in order to develop normally both physically and mentally. This is where the evolution of the child mentally comes from by facing some danger such s emotions of fear and caution, phobias for stimuli such as heights, confinement, risk social encounters and many more. All this needs to be observed since children needs to survive so as to develop in future and reproduce so that the generation can continue.
Media Influences on Childhood Aggression
Whatever a child hears and watches both in the media early in their lives brings about some effects in life. Those children who hear vulgar language and watch violent programs such as violence against others and lack of remorse for others can develops some aggression behavior in their lives (Myers, 2008). This normally happens through imitation of what they have just heard or seen in their radios and television or even the internet.
Influences of Moral and Pro-social Development in childhood/adulthood
As the child develops, some factors can be observed through the acquisition of pro-social skills which normally happens through helping each other, sharing and encouraging corporation. For instance, a child who grows in a friendly environment from their older siblings feels that pro-social skills have been observed from their older sibling as compared to those who grow in an environment where he feel there is a lot of aggression and some teasing towards them.
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Development of Secure and Insecure Attachment Relationships
To a child, he needs an adult who can show them some warmth by caring for them when it comes to some sensitive matters. These parents should also be ready to respond to their needs. This can be created very well if there is a good bond between the parent and the child (Reid, et al. 2007). Interestingly, the parent is supposed to identify what good can make the child feel soothed and calmed. Some few factors causes some insecure attachment in a child, this are the ambivalently, disorganized and avoidant.
Daycare and Childhood
This is an ongoing service from the child’s legal guardian during specific periods when maybe the parents are busy. Good daycare is known to provide different experiences than when the parent is providing dome care for the child especially when the child reaches at the age of two and got to know how to interact with the other children (Brain, & Mukherji, 2005). They at times develop better language and cognitive development. They are always cooperative than those who receive bad care.
Effects on Daycare Parenting
Poor day care put the child at physical, emotional and attachment risks. This triggers some aggressiveness and defiant behavior in them. Some engage themselves in fights and argue a lot. To avoid such kind of behavior, then there is needs for a healthy daycare (Brain, & Mukherji, 2005).
There is a need for the child to be brought up in a better environment and culture so as to instill some positive virtues in a child. Parents should avoid behaviors such as conflicts and divorces so that children cannot have some form of aggressiveness in them. Instead they should develop some good attachment to the children to make them feel secure and protected. Parents also should take the responsibilities of observing what kind of programs the child is watching so as to some avoid aggressiveness.
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