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One of the elements of the revolution is the perfection of different organs over time. Over the years, instincts and organisations struggle for existence in the world. As a result, the profitable structures and instincts are preserved to assist organisms to survive. With time, the organs and instincts are perfected to ensure survival of the organisms. “The current state of organs has been perfected through graduated steps”.
The other element is the principle of gradation, which results to the profitable modifications of organs to be able to survive. This explains why we have a difference in organisms from the same species. Nature endows different instincts to organisms of the same species through graduated steps. Organisms form similar parents have common instincts, but while placed in different environments, the instincts are modified to fit the environment.
Conceptual shifts suggested by Darwin
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Darwin asks people to accept and acknowledge that fact there is a connection between species and the well-marked varieties. The latter are connected to the modern day through constant gradation from the former species. For this reason, the varieties are worthy of names, both common and scientific names. Darwin also asks people to accept that producing and extinction of present and past species are greatly determined by secondary factors like those that determine the birth and death of an organism. He urges people not to view organisms as creations of the special creator but as descendants of the living beings. The living species transit some likeness to their descendants, explaining the similarities in organisms from the same species.
Criticisms of Darwin’s thinking
One of the criticisms on Darwin’s theory is that it fails to explain the origin of the extremely complicated blocks of life. Behe, the author of Darwin’s Block Box, criticises Darwin belief that life is a product of unsupervised, random natural process. According to him, the existence of a complex cell life is a true indication of how life was meant to be, and not a result of random natural selection.
Scientists also criticise Darwin’s theory of evolution on the grounds that the theory fails to give empirical scientific evidence supporting the theory. The theory lacks scientific evidence to explain natural generation of life and the subsequent evolution of life from one species to another. Moreover, the theory fails to give facts on the evolutionary connections between species and how same species have differences. In addition, Darwin fails to explain the origin of the organs modified with time. For instance, he fails to explain how the modern eye developed from a simple structure to how it is today. In addition, he evades the issue of the eyes’ ultimate beginning. Scientists also criticise Darwin’s view that anatomy is a simple process. According to the scientists, anatomy is a process involving complex biochemical reactions that Darwin cannot explain.
David Berlinski’s analysis of Paley
William Paley, a reverend was the first person to publish the book, natural theology, which was the greatest book on scientific revolutions at the time. He was a victim of several near-death experiences, but still struggles to remind people of his existence. The book natural theology is based on the Christian faith and defence for their faith. He argues that a watch, with so many parts framed together for a purpose, there must be a designer behind it. Likewise, the complex life of the living things must have a designer behind it. That the designer is a person, and the person is God. However, with the publication of Darwin’s Origin of species, biologists started doubting the inferences of the Natural Theology.
Though they agree that the design and coordination is necessary to explain the complexity of human life, time and chance also play a crucial role. For this reason, no design is necessary in the natural world, and consequently, no designer is required. This led to the loss of fame of Paley’s book of Natural Theology. However, ten years after, his beliefs were reinvented in physics and mathematics. However, the book could still not explain some facts of life like the evolution of the human eye. This again, led to the death of the fame of his book. Throughout his life, he struggled to make people and scientists understand the role of the creator/God in living things. However, his ideas received more criticisms that acceptance leading ....to concluding that “And Paley, poor Paley? Dead at last or at least not very vigorously alive.”
According to Gould, natural selection can be defined from the following facts. First, the fact all organisms give birth to more offspring that can probably survive. Secondly, there are big differences among organisms. Thirdly, that at least one of the differences in the organisms results from inheritance. Consequently, natural selection explains that not all produced organisms survive, and the survivors are the organisms that are well-adopted to the ever-changing environments.
"Darwin's theory is philosophically so radical that all the psychological hopes and social convention of our history cry out against it". Gould believes that most the scientists denying the Darwin theory of evolution generally are against naturalism, anti-progressionalism and materialism. The scientists have not made peace with Darwin’s theories and thus the constant criticisms. The non-scientists on the other hand, need to get answers on moral question in science. The need answers to the big questions about the meanings of lives, but unfortunately, science cannot provide such answers. Consequently, these people end up denying Darwinism and other scientific beliefs when they fail to get answers on morality.
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