Organ System

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The existence of human beings in the universe is something of key discussion since onset. Many questions have risen from both experts and the non-experts concerning human diversity and existence. However, a substantial and reasonable answers concerning the above lies in the reproduction systems. Indeed, if parents and the other families did not reproduce, then the human race existence would be in doubt. As other living things reproduce, so do human beings reproduce. Reproduction is hence, defined as the process by which living organisms bring their young ones like of their likeness for the continuity of their racial existence. It is the reproduction in living organisms that give a clear distinction between living and the nonliving organisms in the ecosystem. Even though, the reproductive systems are essential in ensuring continuity of the generation, unlike other body systems, it is not essential in keeping an organism alive (Edward 2001).

In human reproduction process, there are two types of gametes or sex cells involved. The gametes are the sperm and the ovum, which meet in the female reproduction system to form a zygote. Humans, like any other organism, pass over certain traits of themselves to the next generation through a distinctive trait carrier called genes. It is this passage of genes from the parent to their children that bring about resemblance between the parents and their off-springs; it is also responsible for the uniqueness of each child from the rest of the siblings. These genes originate from the father’s sperms and the mother’s ovum which produced by the male and female reproductive systems respectively.

A good number of species have two sexes: male and female with each sex having its own unique reproductive structure, shape, but are specifically designed to produce, nourish, and transport either eggs or sperms. Unlike the female reproductive system, the male reproductive organs located both internally and externally of the pelvis. The male genitals are the: the testicles, the duct system, which consist of the vas deferens and the epididymis , the penis and the accessory glands, which mainly include the seminal vesicles and prostate glands. The testicles are oval in shape with an approximate length of 2 inches (5 centimeters) and about 1 inch in thickness. They form part of the endocrine system as they produce testosterone hormones during puberty in men hence stimulating the secretion of sperms (Goldberg and Billy, 2005).

The human male organs collectively work in producing and releasing semen into the female reproductive system during sexual intercourse by producing sex hormones. At birth, a baby has all the essential components of reproduction track system, but, it is until puberty that he is viable to reproduce. At the age of 10 to 14, the onset of puberty begin in male children, the pituitary gland which is located near the brain starts to secrete stimulatory hormones which consequently instigate the testicles to produce testosterone, thus bringing about many observable physical changes in the body. Although the timing of these changes may vary from one person to another, in all individuals they follow a certain sequence.

The penis, which hangs outside the body, becomes hard when one is sexually excited allowing the blood to flow into the tissues within the penis and then erects making it easier to insert into female virginal track system during sexual intercourse. Semen is pushed from the male’s body through the urethra into the female sexual organ, a process called ejaculation. If a mature egg is already in the female’s fallopian tube, conception occurs if it meets with a viable sperm and fertilized. It is this fertilized egg that is referred to as a zygote (Kim, 2002).

Men are likely to experience reproductive system complications and problems which can affect the functioning of the male organs. Some of such disorders may include: testicular injuries which may cause severe pain, bruising or swelling as the blood flow in the system might have been cutoff. Though it is not a common problem, it’s most likely to be experienced by those individual actively participating in sporting activities. Vericocele (an abnormal swelling of veins) is another common male reproduction system problem encountered at puberty stage of male development. Though it may not be such harmful, it may damage the testicles or decrease the sperm count, hence the need for medical examination.

Hydrocele is another disorder that occurs when fluids collect around testicular membranes causing a painless swelling which may require surgical operations to correct. Testicular cancer is one of the most common infections affecting young men in their early ages, usually less than forty years. It is as a result of abnormal division of cells in the testicle forming a tumor. This problem can spread to other parts of the body if not detected in time. To curb its spread, it is therefore recommended that all men at their earliest stage of life possible should undergo self-examination regularly to help in detection at its initial stage.

Sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia may cause an inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) affecting the coiled tubes that connect the testes with the vas deferens resulting in pain and swelling of the testicles. In addition to the above list is the inguinal hernia which is a complication described by the abnormal weakening of the abdominal walls and into the groin allowing the intestines to surge. Hernia may look like a mere bulge in the scrotum surrounding with no alarming problem, but can only be corrected through surgery. Other disorders that may affect the male reproduction organs include: inflammation of the penis which are mainly caused by yeast or bacterial infections, and hypospadias, a disorder in which the urethra only opens on the lower side of the penis and not at the tip. In solving the above mentioned problems, men need to be very observant on changes and growth parameters in their reproductive organs, share the same with their parents and medical personnel within their reach for counseling and advice (Elaine 200).

The human organisms have trillions of cells working together to maintain the entire body of the organisms within acceptable metabolic body standards. Maintenance of a constant internal environment is vital for the survival of the body cells. The varied ways through which the body keeps a constant temperature of the key body organs is what is referred to as homeostasis which requires constant evaluation, monitoring and adjustments as changes occur in the body. The male reproductive organs are essential in bringing balance within the human body. For instance, when the body temperature exceeds the recommended level, the temperature receptors in the skin communicates the information to the brain, the control center, produces a response through the effectors in the blood vessels and sweat glands in the skins. Because of the continuous changes in the body temperature, a synthetic equilibrium needs to be made to correspond to such homeostatic variations in the body. Homeostatic mechanisms are aimed at keeping a tolerable environmental limit in the body to enable proper functioning of the body organs.

The sustainability of systematic functionalism of the numerous body organs require a coordinated fair play involving both positive and negative responses from the central coordination point, the brain as they are used to fine tune each other in restoring back the situation leading to a creation of metastability in maintaining fixed limits for the body homeostatic conditions. No body system works in isolation in bringing equilibrium state of balance within the entire body systems as it is a complex joint effort. However, the reproductive systems itself contributes almost in significantly to the homeostatic process of the body. Instead, reproductive organs are acceptably essential in maintenance of the species and for the continuity of the human generation to the coming generations, but sex hormones do have a magnificent role to play in influencing the functioning of other body organs, and any homeostatic imbalance in the body will partially or fully lead to a disorder to the reproductive systems such as infertility (Irwin, 200).

In control systems, both male and female reproductive systems are hormonally controlled and not neutrally controlled. The two main hormone determinants of reproduction are gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), secreted by the hypothalamus to stimulate the discharge of pituitary gonadotropin – follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) released by the anterior pituitary gland. It is these two hormones that participate in the secretion of gametogenesis and androgen/estrogen in the reproduction process for both male and female. The male tubules are surrounded by a cluster of interstitial cells whose main role is to synthesize testosterone and secrete them into the human bloodstream (Benerd, John, eds, 1998).

In conclusion, the male reproductive organs are not only essential but sufficient in the continuity of the human generation to uncertain future days. Same to the female reproduction organs, the two systems deserve to be guarded with a lot of jealousy from generation unfriendly circumstance to maintain their functioning status quo. Similarly, men need to be very careful with what they consume, as research has observed that most of the reproduction failures or disorders are as a result of nutrition.

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