While studying Staphylococcus, bacteria growing in culture dishes, Sir Alexander Flaming observed that penicillium mould was also growing in these dishes. Furthermore, he observed that a clear area existed around the mould since all the bacteria that had grown in this area had died. He also observed that in the culture dishes without mould, no clear areas were present. After making these observations, he formed a hypothesis. His hypothesis was that the moulds must have been producing a chemical that killed the bacteria. He tested this hypothesis by isolating this substance and testing it to see if it would kill the bacteria. He transferred the mould into a nutrient broth solution containing all the materials the mould needed to grow. After the mould had grown, he removed it from the nutrient broth and added the nutrient broth in which the mould had grown to a culture of bacteria. The bacteria died. The hypothesis from this experiment should be accepted since after testing it, the bacteria died proving that the mould must have been producing a chemical that killed the bacteria thus his hypothesis was correct. This experiment has led to development of major medical advancements. Scientists started producing penicillin after the discovery of Flemings experiment. Penicillin is used to treat bacterial infections in wounds, diphtheria, gangrene, pneumonia, syphilis and tuberculosis.
Two types of forensic examinations that can be completed on an empty can soda include forensic DNA analysis and fingerprint analysis. In Forensic DNA analysis, the forensic scientist uses DNA profiles of a person to identify his unique identity. This examination can be used in an empty can to DNA of a person who drunk from that can by conducting tests on the saliva found on the can. In fingerprint analysis, the forensic scientist studies the traces of fingerprint impressions left on the surface of an object. Everybody has a unique fingerprint and thus the scientist can use fingerprints to know the identity of a criminal. This examination can be carried out in an empty soda can by studying the fingerprints left on the surface of an empty can in order to determine the identity of the person who was using the can.
Using the scientific method on testing DNA on the can, the forensic scientist can start by making an observation. The observation in this case can be that the empty soda can contains traces of saliva on its surface. The next step is formulating a hypothesis. The scientist can formulate a hypothesis such as the saliva found on the can belongs to the person who committed murder in a particular murder investigation. The next step would be testing the hypothesis with an experiment. The scientist can conduct the experiment by comparing the DNA profile found on the can with the DNA profile of the suspects who conducted the murder. The methods used for this analysis include RFLP analysis, PCR analysis and STR analysis. The next step is analyzing data from the experiment. If the results of the DNA profile found in the saliva found on the empty soda matches with the DNA profile of one of the murder suspects, then he is the one who committed the murder. The next step is proving the hypothesis formulated before. The hypothesis formulated was true since the experiment proved that the saliva found on the can belonged to the suspect who committed the murder.
Using the scientific method of testing the fingerprints on the empty soda can, the forensic scientist can start by making observations on the surface of the empty soda can. By using a magnifying lens, the scientist could observe that the surface of the can contains fingerprints. The next step is formulating a hypothesis. The scientist could formulate a hypothesis stating that the fingerprints on the can belong to the suspect who committed a particular murder. The next step is testing the hypothesis with an experiment. The forensic scientist can conduct this experiment by comparing the prints found on the can with exemplar prints on their murder suspects. After this, he should analyze the data from his experiment. If one of the prints from the exemplar matches the prints found on the can, then this suspect is the one who committed the murder. The last step is proving whether the hypothesis formulated was true. The hypothesis formulated was correct since the experiment proved that the prints found on the can matched the prints of one of the murder suspect.
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