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Part I:

Original: 3'-T A C C C T T T A G T A G C C A C T-5’

Transcription:  5’-A U G G G A A A U C A U C G G U G A-3’

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Translation:  Met – Gly – Asn – His – Arg

Mutation 1: 3’-T A C G C T T T A G T A G C C A T T-5'

Transcription: 5’-A U G C G A A A U C A U C G G U A A-3’

Translation: Met – Arg – Asn – His – Arg

Mutation 2: 3’-T A A C C T T T A C T A G G C A C T-5’

Transcription: 5’-A U U G G A A A U G A U C C G U G A-3’

Translation: Ile- Gly – Asn – Asp – Pro

The first codon in the mRNA sequence is supposed to represent a start codon which takes on the amino acid of Methionine, and the last codon signals the stop and release of the completed polypeptide. In the first mutation of the strand of DNA, there was a miscoding of one of the amino acids. In the second mutation, the mutation resulted into a complete improper coding of the strand, producing an improper peptide. Since the first mutation only had one amino acid change, the protein might not have functioned completely correctly. In the second mutation, the protein is going to function completely improperly.

Part II:

 

C

c

C

CC

Cc

c

Cc

cc

 

 

Normal (CC) = 25%

Carrier (Cc) = 50%

Affected (cc) = 25%

Part III:

Meiosis is the production of haploid germ cells in the gonads of humans. During meiosis, the number of chromosomes is cut in half for each of the four cells. As a result, the entire set of chromosomes gets spread across providing different sets of genes to each of the cells. This occurs in both sets of gonads; therefore, the number of combinations increases exponentially. In addition, during prophase, one of meiosis, crossing over can occur, which again increases the amount of genetic diversity. In that case, chunks of homologous chromosomes form bridges with each other and exchange physical parts of the chromosome. Again, this will continue to increase as the chromatids separate into each of the four germ cells. Once fertilization occurs, the offspring are going to receive 23 chromosomes from each parent. The combination of each of these chromosomes following the conjunction of crossing over and independent assortment of chromosomes increases the genetic diversity in the offspring.

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