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Human Bioscience

Question 1

Parasagittal plane – This is a plane that is located parallel to a saqqital plane but not including the median plane passing through the midline. The ideal example is the midclavicular line crossing through the clavicle.                                                                                                                        Frontal plane – is described as any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the toes that divide the body into two parts: front and back, and perpendicular to sagittal planes.                                                                                                                                      


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Superficial - simply means near the surface.                                                                    

Deep - means something that extends far much below the visible surface.                                            

Proximal - refers to the nearest or the closest.                                                                                         

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Distal - this used in anatomy to refer to something located far from the reference part for example a point of attachment.

Question 2                                                                                                                                 

 1.Integumentary system – consists of the skin and is the largest body organ accounting for eight to fifteen per cent of a person’s body weight. It consists of the dermis, epidermis, and hypodermis.

  1. Skeletal system - consists of the bone system in the body and their associated cartilages that jointly add up to form the skeleton.
  2. Muscular system - consists of muscles and makes up nearly half of the body weight. It provides the forces that enable the body to move.
  3. Nervous system - this body system is arguably the most complex and consists of a major network of fibers that allow the brain to communicate with other body systems and organs through electrical and chemical pulses.
  4. Endocrine system - this is a system consisting of glands, each of which secrete a certain hormone type directly into the bloodstream to regulate the bodily processes.
  5. Cardiovascular system- the system that transports blood in the body and consists of veins, arteries and other blood vessels.
  6. Lymphatic system - this is a series of interrelated parts that work together to produce results that would not have been produced by one part alone.
  7. Respiratory system - in anatomy this is a system that performs gaseous exchange and is responsible for person’s breathing. The major parts include the lungs, airways, and respiratory muscles.
  8. Digestive system - this is a system that works physically and chemically to break down food. It starts from the mouth all the way to the anus.
  9. Urinary system - consists of the urethra, bladder, two kidneys and two ureters. Its work is to produce, store, and move out urine.
  10. Reproductive system - is a system of organs in an organism that work for the sole purpose of reproduction. The major part of this includes fluids, hormones, and pheromones as well as the external genitalia and several internal organs like the gametes.

Question 3

 1. Chemical level- it is the smallest level of organization which forms the building blocks of the human body that includes atoms and molecules.

  1. Cellular level- this is the basic life form since life begins with a single cell which multiplies through mitosis replicating all the single cells with a full set of forty six chromosomes.
  2. Tissue level - at this level similar types of cells come together to form tissues. There are four main types of tissues namely epithelial, connective, neural, and muscular tissues.
  3. Organ level - a combination of the body tissues forms an organ. The organ performs a specific duty in the body e.g. blood movement or excretion carried out by the heart and kidneys respectively.
  4. System level - this is the highest level of organization in the human body. When many organs come together, they form the system. Body systems include the digestive and respiratory systems among others.
  5. Organismal leve l- is the coming together of all the bodily systems to form an organism.      Question 4                                                                                                                                 Positive feedback is a hormonal system that assists in the childbirth process. During childbirth, the level of oxytocin, a hormone which enhances labour contractions, increases greatly. When the baby moves into the birth canal, pressure that is created on the receptors in the muscular areas of the uterus causes the release of oxytocin in the brain. When this hormone reaches the pressured receptors in the uterine wall muscles, it increases muscular tension thus stimulating the pressure receptors. This is what is referred to as the labour processes which goes on until the child is born and oxytocin is no longer produced by the brain of a woman.  

Question 5                                                                                                                                         

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The abdominal cavity is the part of the body below the thoracic cavity and above the pelvic cavity. The thoracic diaphragm is the ‘roof’ whereas the pelvic inlet is the ‘floor’. The abdominal structures include the stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, spleen liver and the kidneys.

The pelvic cavity is the body cavity that is located between the pelvic bones. Its ‘roof’ is the pelvic inlet whereas its ‘floor’ or the bottom point is the pelvic floor. The pelvic cavity consists of the reproductive organs, the pelvic colon, the urinary, and the rectum.                                                                                                                                    

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Question 6                                                                                                                                      

Microbes are micro-organisms. Those that cause diseases are called pathogens. They are also referred to as parasites since they do not benefit the host in any way. The main types of microbes are viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The two main categories of diseases caused by microbes are viral and bacterial diseases. Common viral diseases include HIV, influenza, measles, small pox, and chicken pox, whereas common bacterial diseases include cholera, tuberculosis, and anthrax.                                                                                                                     

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Question 7                                                                                                                                         

Viruses are intracellular parasites, thus they require the help of a living cell to replicate. This replication produces progeny and when complete, leaves the host cell to infect the remaining cells. It takes place in six major steps. These steps are the following:                                                                                       

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Step1: Adsorption. This is how the virus attaches or binds to the host cell.                                       

Step2: Penetration. The virus then introduces its genome into the host cell.                                                   

Step 3: Viral Genome Replication. This occurs using the host cell own cellular mechanism.              

Step 4: Assembly. The viral enzymes and other components are produced and begin to accumulate.      

Step 5: Maturation. The viral constituents accumulate and the viruses fully develop. Step 6: Release. In this step the newly formed viruses are ousted from the host cell.

Question 8                                                                                                                                      Gram-positive bacteria have a high amount of peptidoglycan in their cell wall, hence they retain the violet stain in the Gram staining to turn dark blue or violet. The Gram- negative bacteria do not retain the violet stain due to their thick outer membrane of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the space between the layers of peptidoglycan and the secondary cell membrane.      

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Question 9                                                                                                                                           

The only difference between a communicable disease and a contagious disease is that contagious diseases are extremely communicable and may require quarantine in order to limit their spread. Communicable diseases do not require the same.                                                                         

Question 10                                                                                                                                            

  • Disinfectants are substances that are applied to objects to destroy or kill microorganisms living on those objects.                                                                                     
  • Complex media, also known as basal medium, is a medium that contains water, salts, and carbon source necessary for bacterial growth.                                                                                                                         
  • Germination time is the time required for a particular seed to germinate in ideal conditions.

Question 11

A fomite is any non-living object that can pass  infectious pathogens from one person to another.                                                                                                                                                             Potential fomites on public transport are shoes, luggage, doorknobs, clothing, hairbrushes, vehicles, handkerchiefs, money, toilets, utensils and seatbelts, water and foods.                                                                                                                                           

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Potential fomites  in the  supermarket include money being exchanged, luggage bought, items being tested for suitability by customers, counter tables, pens, clothes, air, handkerchiefs and news magazine.



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