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Jeddah City is one of the developed cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Due to modernization and well economy, almost all of the means of transport are already present in this city, such as aviation, land transport. This is one of the main contributing factors in attracting people to visit, work and sometimes live in this city. Also, Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca, which able-bodied Muslims all over the world are required to visit at least once in their lifetime. It is also a gateway to Medina, the second holiest place in Islam.
Jeddah city is located on the western coast of the Red sea and it is in Saudi Arabia. It receives a lot of visitors in the Hajj season when many people from all over the world pass by on their way to the holy cities of Medina and Mecca. It is because of this event that the government decided to improve the modes of transport in the city and in 2025 it will be a remarkable city with a state of the art infrastructure. Jeddah's mode of transport varies from taxis to public utility buses. The most preferred mode of transport by the locals is the public buses but the tourists prefer Taxis and Car rental services so as to have the Jeddah experience. The international travelers love to use the Limousines Taxi services which are readily available on request. In 2025, Jeddah city is believed to have the most developed infrastructure in the region with a state of the art airport and roads.
Light rail or light rail transit (LRT) - is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems. The term is typically used to refer to rail systems with rapid transit-style features that usually use electric rai cars operating mostly in private right of way separated from other traffic but sometimes, if necessary, mixed with other traffic in City Street.
Transportation- Any device used to move an item from one location to another. Common forms of transportation include planes, trains, automobiles, and other two-wheel devices such as bikes or motorcycles.
Traffic Congestion- is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, congestion is incurred. As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up.
Means of Transport - is a term used to distinguish substantially different ways to perform transport.
Urban Areas - is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it.
Purpose/Goal of the research
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This research intended to further study, evaluate and specify an alternative means of transport and strategy to contribute in achieving the Suitable Travel Mode on land transportation within the urban areas of Jeddah City on the year 2025.
Statement of problem
We always experience that in every development or changes coming, there are problem arises. We can see that in this early stage of development, the urban areas of Jeddah feel exhausted especially the travelers. Majority of the traveler says that travelling in the main road of the City is not easy, not safe, time consuming and so uncomfortable due to traffic congestion or slow flow of traffic, lack of easy access path or alternative roads and transport infrastructure. In my professional viewpoint, there must be an evaluation and specifying an alternatives and strategies on land transportation inside the City. It is obvious from the above that the current situation in Jeddah city need to be addressed specifically in Land Transport Area, we expect that in the near future it will lead to development of this city and tremebndously improve the economy in Jeddah City.
1. How will an increase in population affect the development of Jeddah city?
2. What measures will be taken to tackle lack of suitable public transportations?
3. What is the sate of urbanization in Jeddah City?
4. What is causing the shortages in administration of the traffic and lack of application of traffic laws in Jeddah city?
5. What is causing commercial establishements in the region?
The research project will therefore seek to investigate the following;
To identify the extent to which the increase in the population affects the development in the city.
To examine how lack of enough and suitable public transportations will be tackled to achieve development.
To describe the urbanization in the region
To evaluate how an increase in ownership of private cars will influence the Hajj pilgrims.
To evaluate the shortage in administration of the traffic and lack of application in traffic laws
To establish the cause of an increase in commercial establishment in the region
Jeddah has a well connected transport system and plans are underway to improve the sate further. The Jeddah city strategic plan, reveals that there is a project under way, the new ring road for Jeddah and is mostly targeted to improve Jeddah's connections with Corniche. there are also plans to expand the busies airport in the region, King Abdul Aziz International airport(KAIA) in three phases so as to accommodate 80 million passengers by 2025. The Saudi Land bridge also by 2015 will be able to provide links to cities such as Riyadh, Dammam and Jubail. in additions to the above mention projects, there will be the Alharammain High Speed Raiol(AHSR) to improve transport for the large number of individuals of Hajj pilgrims to Mecca and Medina.World Mark Encyclopedia(2007), states that Jeddah is the point of entry for the MUslims are going to Mecca and Medina, the holy cities.
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Jeddah’s population is estimated at around 3.4 million and by year 2029 it is expected to have grown to over 5 million (Figure. 1.1). The total population is currently made up of 52% Saudi nationals and 48% Non- Saudi nationals, which demonstrate the city’s demographic diversity. The growth in the population leads to development in the commercial and industrial activities and consequently leads to increase the need of transportation between the separate areas of the city. (Dr. Abdel MonemSaeed, 2008).
The state of the transport industry in Jeddah city
Transportation is a system of movement of the people and the commodities from one location to another. The movement of the people is the important thing especially inside the cities because it’s establish and expand the relationship and also within the economic development and growth. The economic value of the merchandise is not benefiting and will have no economic value if it is not available in the place and the time requested, so indeed the movement of the people and the merchandise together are the main factors in the economical and social development.
Compared to other cities in KSA, Jeddah City is one of the busiest city in terms of movement of people and commodities. As stated earlier, it is a gateway to two holiest City such as Mecca and Medina, which has a responsible to cater for this movement not only for local residents but also for millions of visitors. Therefore, the transportation is considered to be an important factor urban planning and one of the sectors that supports the economic skeleton where we can't reach the balance in the growth in all sectors of economic without presence of it. Economic and social development in the city depends the transportation system, so if the transport system is developed, the city development increases.
The current disturbance between the increase of the demand for transportation and shortage of the substitute transportation, led to a situation in which cars dominates the main transportation means in which it is 86% as opposed to 14% for the other means.
The average ownership of cars in the kingdom is 349 for every 1000 people and this means that there are no suitable substitutes of transportation, and the public transportation in the city of Jeddah limited to the buses of SAPTICO company ,there are small buses with capacity of 26 passengers owned by individuals as well. Currently, in spite of development, light rails do not exist in Jeddah City which includes86% private cars and 14% Bus and others
As we can see majority of individual use private cars as their means of transport, which play a major contribution on road accident? Jeddah roads statistics are alarming high. In 2007, there were total of 78,680 reported traffic accidents-an average of more than 200 a day including 387 fatal accidents, 2,738 injury accidents and 75,777 Transportation is a necessity for both people and freight, and in both cases there are advantages and disadvantages. Businesses have to decide how best to move their goods to get them to the customer and the factors they need to take into account are cost, convenience, reliability and pollution.
Advantage and Disadvantage of basic means of transport;
Road transport includes car, bus, trucks, van, etc.
Provide high flexiibility, allow easy travel, serves as initial and final stage of freight transport, most commonly used mode of transport, suitable for short and medium distance, high availability, possibility of delivery of cargo from door to door; high agility, flexibility, agility, ability to use different routes and delivery schemes, high safety of the cargo, the possibility of sending the goods in small batches; great opportunity to select the most suitable carrier.
Low capacity, high energy and area use, main source of noise and air pollution, cause of road accident, transport subject to traffic delays. Low productivity, dependence on weather and road conditions, the relatively high cost of transport over long distances, lack of environmental cleanliness, punctuality of discharge, a relatively small payload.
Light Rail Transit
Fast medium of transportation, suitable for long distance, energy efficient mode of transport, high throughput, and the freight, regardless of climatic conditions, time of year and day, high frequency of traffic, the ability to effectively organize the implementation of loading and unloading operations; relatively low rates and significant discounts for transit shipments, high speed delivery of goods over long distances.
Required special infrastructure, require high cause, not flexible mode of transportation. Limited number of carriers, large capital investments in industrial and technology base, high material and energy intensity of transport, low accessibility to the final point of sales (consumption), high enough of the cargo.
By the year 2025, Jeddah City will be considered as the most developed cities in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is expected to have major economic development which will include; infrastructure, business or trading, industrial and commercial development. Because of this rapid development, the city must prepare in all aspects to facilitate this movement especially in transportation area.
Principles of urban planning
Study and evaluate the existing transportation sector situation. Specify current and expected problems of the transportation sector and analyze the future needs. The futuristic expectations for the population, and also evaluation of land use growth. Propose alternatives to long-and short planning for transportation sector. Estimate the environmental effects resulting from futuristic improvements on transportation. Make financial scheme to insure what needed for expenses to cover the costs suffice to execute strategic projects.
Main objective of urbanized plan for transportation:
Consolidate the Traffic flow and consequently makes the traffic flow easy.
Reduction of the traveling time
for more than
for more than
for more than
Improvement of traffic safety
Reduce the costs of transportation services.
Facilitation of the services to old persons and those who are handicapped with special needs and children to arrive to their services because they can’t drive a car
Provide the services under all circumstances of the weather.
Decrease the environmental pollution.
The methodology that will be applied by the study has been put across in order to acquire the necessary information that will be required to come up with conclusions about the most suitable mode of transport in Jeddah City. My research methodology will need gathering of relevant data from the various documents and databases so as to arrive at a more concrete conclusion.
To achieve the objectives of the study, both the secondary data and primary data will be collected. The secondary data will be used for the formation of the background information which will help the reader comprehend the outcome. the primary data will include;
The features of population of the City of Jeddah and the characteristics and means of transport available in the city. Data will be collected from the previous planning studies and demographic studies of the city of Jeddah.
A survey to identify the means of transport used by the population and socio-economic characteristics of transport users. This data are collected through a questionnaire on a sample of the population. The strategy on Land transportation used by the well developed countries that may adopt in Jeddah. ( Mahmoud H.G,2009)
From the above, it is evident that Jeddah will experience development in the transport sector by 2025. Rapid population growth and the increased demand of better transport facilities in Jeddah city for the sake of the pilgrim will indeed develop the transport sector and take it a notch higher.
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