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Today, it is very difficult to imagine our everyday life without various devices. Sometimes we do not think who was the inventor or creator of all necessary things. Radio is just one of these devices.
The creation of radio is very closely connected with telephone and telegraph. It is worth mentioning that the radio technology commenced as wireless telegraphy. Radio is an electronic device that is used in order to listen to or to transmit something. Radio is also considered to begin with the radio waves discovery. These electromagnetic waves can easily transmit speech, pictures, music, and different other data through the air. Nowadays, electromagnetic waves force to work a great number of devices, such as radio, phones, microwaves, toys, TV sets, etc.
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The Origins of Radio
In the late 1860-s, James C. Maxwell, a physicist from Scotland, introduced his theory concerning waves. Mahlon Loomis, a dentist by profession, introduced telegraphy without wires. He managed to force a meter which was connected to a kite to make another one move. The experiment was recognized as the first example of aerial transmission achieved without wires. Heinrich R. Hertz, an inventor and physicist from Germany, managed to demonstrate the electronic current rapid variations that were projected into space having the form of radio waves, that are equal to heat or light waves. This took place in the year 1886.
Guglielmo Marconi was a well-known Italian inventor who was able to prove that communication is possible by using radio. In 1895, Marconi managed to sent and to receive the signal transmitted by means of radio. In 1899, the first signal was sent by Marconi across the la Manche, and in three years, the first letter, it was 'S', was transmitted from Great Britain to Newfoundland. That was believed the first attempt of transmitting a message through radiotelegraph that turned out to be successful one.
Simultaneously with Guglielmo Marconi, other inventors, Nathan Stufflefield and Nikola Tesla were granted patents to the wireless radio transmitter. Tesla is proven to be the first inventor who patented the radio technology. It should be pointed out that Guglielmo Marconi took the case concerning the novel technology to the court in order to take the patent from Tesla; but in 1943, the case of Marconi was overturned by the US Supreme Court. Nikola Tesla obtained and owned all rights on this invention.
Lee De Forest's AM Radio
Lee De Forest was an inventor of the Audion, the space telegraphy, and the triode amplifier. During the early 1990-s, there arose a great necessity for further improvement of radio. It was Lee De Forest who constructed and introduced a electromagnetic radiation detector. It was treated as a rather outstanding as well as efficient device. The detector was capable of amplifying the frequency of radio signals that were taken by the antenna; thus, the weak signals were easily utilized. De Forest is believed to be the first who used the term 'radio.' The invention of AM Radio or amplitude-modulated radio was the result of his hard and long-lasting work. AM Radio allowed to created a wide and multiple range of various radio stations.
It is a rather interesting fact that, in 1917, when the USA joined the First World War, the radio development and all its improvements started to be under the control of the US Navies in order to prevent it being applied to by the foe spies. Since that very moment and up to the end of the war, all patents that were related to the radio technologies were given by the USA government. The Radio Corporation of America was founded in 1919. This corporation aimed to control the distribution of the radio patents.
Reginald A. Fessenden
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden, a Canadian inventor, became well-known for the invention the fathometer and the modulation of radio waves. Fessenden worked together with such outstanding scientists as Thomas Edison and Westinghouse in the 1880-s. Starting his own company, Reginald A. Fessenden invented the 'heterodyne principle' or the modulation of radio waves. It permitted to percept and transmit signals on the same aerial, avoiding interference.
Frequency-modulated (FM) Radio
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In 1933, Edwin H. Armstrong invented frequency-modulated (FM) radio. The signals were much improved due to the introduction of the aforementioned device which controlled the noise static. The earth atmosphere and electrical equipment are the primary causes of this static. Up to 1936, the whole American telephone communication were supposed to be transmitted through Great Britain. In the same year, a straight radio-telephone connection was introduced to France, to be more concrete, to Paris. The scientists of Bell's laboratory invented the transistor in 1947. In several years, to be specific, in 1954, the newly established Japanese company, now known as SONY, represented the transistor radio.
Nowadays, phone connection by cable and radio is accessible in more than 200 countries. It should be stressed that the quick growth and development of radio technology have been increased significantly for the last decades. It is very difficult to state who was the real inventor or the father of radio as a great number of questions concerning radio have been opened and debatable. In this paper, the most outstanding scholars, their inventions, as well as the contributions have been mentioned. In my opinion, all these scientists have done a very remarkable work, and we all should be thankful for the creation of radio. I think that it is not essential who was supposed to be the first; what is really important is radio.
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