Theories of Personality


“Ghosts in the Nursery” tries to give an insight in the development of children and relative criminal intent. Indeed, reading the article will present unsavory discoveries on the actions and happenings of children at a young age. The article gives the stories of young children who engage in criminal activities due to their upbringing. These criminal activities have been on the increase since the year 1925 whereby it was proclaimed that the rate of teenage or childhood crimes would increase significantly. Indeed, there have been controversial concerns about the rise of juvenile crimes, since at least twenty children are killed each year. These children are no different to others because they are children who have grown with others and live within the limits of the societal morals. Hence, the question of what turns a child to a disgusting criminal who does unbelievable criminal activities arises. There are the reported cases showing that 90 per cent of juvenile crimes are homicides. Thereby, in search for reasons or causes of such behavior of children aged from seven to 16, there is much that stems from the upbringing and environment of the child. A child who has been born and reared in an environment or family that could not meet moral and financial needs could possibly become delinquent. Research indicates the children who have been in broken backgrounds that do not offer opportunities for moral and family support (Karr-Morse & Wiley, 1997). Hence, this situation should be taken into tough focus to illustrate the reason behind these shocking happenings so that treatment of these criminal turned children and normal ones are taken from the general crime contact.

Attachment Theory

Attachment theory was conceptualized by Bowlby, who indicated that babies possess an inborn desire of attaching themselves to their caretakers, who in most cases are their parents. This attachment is a tendency that eventually continues through the growth and development of the child to adulthood. This theory, thereby, becomes the basis for future attachment in adult livelihood, in making friends, marriage, and many other day-to-day notions. On the basis of Bowlby principles, one is be able to clarify the assumptions that are presented in the article. Bowlby defines the attachment between a mother and a child as monotropy. Hence, monotropy could also be experienced by the mother who eventually will be attached to the child. According to this, mothers experience an instinct of attachment themselves to their children  too (Myers, 1995). If there is no mother, the father or other relatives may become involved. In this case, they may have a less natural motivation in providing appropriate attachment for the child.

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Therefore, considering the case that is provided, the attachment that an infant or any child of any age makes with his/her parent on the basis of either tension or comfort variable principles and fear is necessary for the physical, social, and mental growth. Basically, instinct compels inner tension that propels infants to actions that reduce the tension; achieving, hence, objectives where they feel comfort. Therefore, an early child parent attachment is essential for the development of the child (McAdams, 2009, p. 113). Deprivation or lack of the attachment leads to disastrous actions. Bowlby indicates that the quality of an infant attachment to a parent can be determined with their respond to the infant attention, security, and even help. When the infant seeks the variables and does not obtain them, the bonds with parents becomes insecure. These maternal deprivation leads to possible increased aggression, high probability of depression, and increased delinquency. Sometimes it can lead to reduction of intelligence, distrust, feelings of unworthiness, and poor relations. These points are alongside with the descriptions of the article whereby the development of a child, attachment to parents, and associations are the basis of behavior and character in her/his growth.

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Humanistic theories are identified in the article, as the writer depicts that children who commit crimes are just children who are scared and innocent in their mental development but are seen as despicable individuals in front of the Americans. Another present theory is the cognitive theory. It is represented by the evaluations of development and health of the case children given, as the writer looks at the age and financial background of the parents and families of the victims (Keirsey, 1998).

Humanistic Movement Psychology

The concept of humanistic movement psychology came from the basic opposition of the initial theories that had been conceptualized before the World War II and was engineered positively by great human psychology theorists Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Humanistic psychology theory inscribes the importance of personal achievement in the overall transformation of behaviors and attitudes and even in the possibility of change of beliefs. It is a theory that indicates that every individual has that inner tendency or desire for goodness and self-realization. This school of thought ensures personal subjectivity on day to day experiences within the rights of continued freedom to choose how humans should lead their lives. Hence, this rebuts the common notion that people are affected and eventually controlled by the environment or involuntary internal impulses. Therefore, in humanistic psychology, more emphasis should be on the basis of personal growth and feelings, personal well-being, and relation to the response to the surrounding environment. Indeed, it is a theory that is more based on the personal growth and development with regard to self-knowledge and the ability of an individual to choose his/her own decisions in regard to life and environment. Maslow and Rogers indicated that and individual should give a personal interpretation of the characteristics of life and its surrounding; hence, he/she is able to learn and even understand life situations so as to find possible situations of them. This is bound on the Rogerian therapy that emphasized the worth of “self-value” and the essence of “taking charge” of life and the Maslow theories of self-development that were based on basic needs and self-fulfillment (Winnie & Gittinger, 1973). Human potential movement preferences fail on occasion that individual becomes more than concerned about the possible evaluations or rather expectations of others on the matter or possibly individual social needs and other personal needs that are not met.

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The basic difference is based on the realization of human values, as the other theories emphasize basically authoritarian principles and constraints. An example is the behaviorism theory that encourages scientific methods and evaluations on the determination of character and the need for mental relevance. It is majorly concerned with the possible measurement of observable data in relation to response to the behavior conditions within the internal environment and biological processes of an individual. Hence, the major difference is on the concept of human feeling and understanding, which is totally ignored in the initial theories.

Carl Rogers Perspective

Carl Rogers is popular with the Rogerian therapy that provides a basis of the psychology determinants providing a direction on the treatment of clients. Basically, the Rogerian theory states that an individual should be able to understand the surrounding environment. Therefore, the response to the client would be based on the variable of the Rogerian therapy, which ensures the individual’s self-value and taking charge of life. The first response would be of the client’s view on life and its relevant environment. A proper understanding of life and its characteristics provide a clear view of the individual’s likes and dislikes, general view of life values, and other personal values that affect life. If Smedley gave an overview of the personal definition of life, then it would be easier to develop a solution according to the provided answers. Then the possible solutions would be to encourage the client to behave and feel the actions and thoughts of self-value. Self-value is a consequent value that enables an individual to discover possible achievable areas and even try to manage other areas that are difficult to achieve. The natural concept of life is that every individual has the capacity of achieving and managing of what passes by him; hence, there is a need for realization of such a concept. Therefore, ever individual has a value to add to the world and to his- or herself, which means that there is a need to identify and take charge of live. Taking charge involves identifying that people, as human beings, can to do something about themselves and it is upon them to identify the points and situations that are defining themselves in order to find possible situations (Fleeson, 2004).

Relatively, the Rogerian therapy conceptualizes cases with respect to natural values that impact the development of an individual. It involves indentifying with the mental situation that a person is in and inventing strategies that are founded within the growth and development of an individual. Regarding these concepts of human feelings and growth whereby the astounding challenges and problems are taken into contrast and identified, the realistic measures are taken to improve them. The theorist would ask the client questions that are based on his life experiences, about the overall interpretation of the Smedley experiences and life the client is having. Lastly, the theorist then gives to the client mental assistance advice on self-value and taking charge of life.

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