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The research strategy employed in this study is an experimental research strategy. Using this research strategy, a researcher manipulates one or more independent variables in order to determine their effect on the dependent variable. In this study the researcher changed the training media and the number of people who studied in order to examine how they affected the learning process of employees.

There are several benefits of using longitudinal dimensions in this research. It enabled the researchers of this study to observe the behavior and skills of the employees before, during, and after offering computer based training. The researches could determine whether the training was effective or not since longitudinal dimension helped in studying the effect of the training methods during the six-month period. It also helped in linking qualitative and quantitative aspects of this research.

Several benefits are associated with collecting data using multiple methods. It helps to reduce bias in data collected from a particular study because data from multiple sources helps in identifying bias that may be present from a particular source. Furthermore, it enables researches to reduce non-sampling errors and, as a result, increase the reliability of collected data.

Several threats to reliability are inherent in this research design. The participants may give biased information regarding the effectiveness of the training medium used during the study. Moreover, the participants may not provide all the information required to assess effectiveness of group sessions. These threats may be avoided by using behavioral interviewing.

Several threats to validity are inherent in this research design. The questionnaires may fail to assess whether the interviewees gathered enough training from the medium of training applied to them. In addition, the information collected from interviewing may not indicate whether the participants benefited from the sessions. In order to reduce these threats the researches should design questions that accurately assess skills of the participants and effectiveness of group interaction.

Case A6

The three stages of data collection used different sampling techniques. The first stage used random sampling while the second and third stages applied stratified sampling. The first stage used random sampling in order to eliminate bias in the information collected on the effectiveness of the proposed change. The second and third stages implemented stratified sampling to generate accurate results and receive different opinions from employees and managers of all departments.

Considering the response rate of the questionnaires was 97.6%, the accuracy of the survey results is + or – 2.4 %.

Several issues need to be considered when generalizing from questionnaire results to each department in the electric division. The researcher should consider the number of employees who participated in the filling of the questionnaires. All employees in the non-production department received the questionnaires and thus the results from the quality, technical, personnel, marketing, and commercial departments are present. Only 28% of employees in the production department received questionnaires and it would not be accurate to generalize the results from these questionnaires. The researcher should also consider the number of people who failed to respond to the questionnaires. Two non-responses came from the computer department and it means that results cannot be accurate since only one employee filled the questionnaire.

When generalizing results from the electrics division, the researcher should consider the number of people who received the questionnaires. Only 50 % of company’s managers and employees received the questionnaires and, consequently, this result does not reflect the opinion of all the employees.

It would be possible to use the results from the three samples to generalize about the management of change in the Hattersley plc group because the first stage used random sampling which eliminated any possible bias in the data collected from the electric division. Furthermore, the use of questionnaires ensured the objectivity of the data collected since the questions were structured in a standardized way.

Case A7

Tony and Jim used several sources to conduct their research. These sources included preliminary profit announcement (also called “prelims”) reports from Regulatory News Service terminal, annual reports, audited accounts of 148 companies, and reports discussing issues related to prelims. The primary sources of data were prelim reports from Regulatory News Service terminal, annual accounts, and audited accounts of 148 companies as they contained original information and data. The secondary source was the reports discussing issues related to prelims as they contained comments and interpretations of the data from preliminary profit announcements.

Tony and Jon could have considered using interviewing in order to obtain data needed to test their hypothesis. They could have interviewed experts in accounting practice, for example, audit firms because these companies have dealt with prelims and annual reports for a long time and they are experienced in accounting matters. Furthermore, the researches could have obtained credible information from interviews, thus reducing bias of any collected data.

Tony and Jim faced several problems in using secondary data due to its inaccuracy. As a result, these reports made inaccurate recommendations. It happened because the secondary source asserted that audit of accounts was incomplete when majority of the companies released their prelims. However, when Tony and Jim tested the accuracy of this data, they found out that 56% of companies issued prelims after the signing of audit reports.

The experience of Tony and Jim teaches us several lessons. First of all, primary sources of data are more reliable than secondary ones because some of the secondary sources may be inaccurate. Second of all, some of the data from secondary sources may be outdated and thus affect the analysis and conclusion reached by a researcher.

Case A10

The working party members were disappointed with the results due to several reasons. The working party members did not get the best proposal for reducing boredom and vandalism amongst town’s youths. It happened because the youths suggested opening of a nightclub in order to utilize their spare time.

A table that shows which objective is addressed by which question.

Question number

Objective Addressed


To find out what the town’s young people did in their spare time


to find out what the town’s young people did in their spare time


to find out what the town’s young people did in their spare time


to find out what the town’s young people did in their spare time


to find out what the town’s young people did in their spare time


to find out what the town’s young people did in their spare time


to establish their potential interest in some of the ideas proposed by the working party


to establish what leisure activities they would like to have available in the town


to compare leisure activities and preferences of different age groups


to find out what the town’s young people did in their spare time


Additional questions:

1. Which leisure activity would you like to be included in your town?

2. Which leisure activity you do not like in your town?

I would make several changes to the questionnaire. Firstly, I would begin by asking the participants to fill their personal details. Secondly, I would ensure that all the boxes are in the same line. Thirdly, in question one and seven I would rearrange the frequency section in such a way: once a week, followed by more than once a week, less than once a month, once a month, and never.

The method used to pilot the test questionnaire could be improved in several ways. The researcher should have increased the number of participants engaged in the pilot test. Furthermore, he should have tested a larger group of people from a different area.

I do not think that postal questionnaires were the best way of collecting this data because the researcher could not observe the body language of participants. Moreover, the process is time consuming and expensive. Not all respondents fill all the questions in the questionnaire since some questions may be difficult to understand.

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