Cardiovascular Disease in Women

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Introduction

About 1.5 million cardiovascular disease cases arise in the U.S each year with 500,000 deaths. It is estimated that more than 233,000 women die per year from the heart attack. Cardiovascular illness takes place about every 20 seconds accompanied by heart attack death about every minute, and the unexpected death is more frequent amongst women with heart attack. New England Journal Med., 22, Jul, 99, demonstrates that women have poor result than men after having cardiovascular disease. Data reports that deaths in women below the age of 50 are twice the deaths of men after having cardiovascular diseases. Inconsistency likely shows the increased sternness of the illness in younger women. Approximately 14 million Americans have an account of cardiovascular disease or angina which makes the economic outcome of cardiovascular diseases in the U .S health care organization become even greater.

Cardiovascular disease or heart disease is any group of diseases that affects the blood vessels system or the heart. The cardiovascular disease technically is any disease that influences the cardiovascular system; and it is generally used to refer to those linked to atherosclerosis (arterial disease). These situations are typically the same and have similar causes, mechanisms, and treatment. A study on disease dimorphism points out that women get the disease of cardiovascular illness by suffering from forms involving the blood vessels while men generally are affected by forms that involve heart muscles.

The commonly known or related causes of cardiovascular illness are hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. However, there are also other possible causes like blockage or tightening of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that provide blood to the heart itself. This is known as coronary artery illness and it happens gradually eventually for some time. This is the main reason why people suffer from heart attacks. The possible known symptoms include shortness of breath, angina, or both. Angina is noticed by tightness, heaviness, burning, pain, pressure, or squeezing of the chest mostly on the behind of the sternum (breastbone), but also occasionally in the neck, arms, or jaws. Normally, angina is obtained from intensified physical practices, eating, emotional stress, or cold temperatures. Although some individuals do not have any symptoms at all, others have mild, more pronounced and steady pain and intermittent chest pain. In addition, some of them still have difficulties to do their normal duties due to pain.

Social economic status of cardiovascular disease patients

An individual’s socioeconomic status is a major aspect on whether or not one gets enough social support. The socioeconomic status is the capacity of income where each individual has to decide their level of economic position in the society. For instance, if the specified individual income is slightly low, compared to nationwide average, that individual would be considered to be of low socioeconomic status. Normally, a person who comes from a lower socioeconomic group is more expected to receive low social support. As a result, they become more susceptible to stressors in their environment and unable to control their feedbacks. Unfortunately, the social hurt, which is more frequent in their daily lives, enhances the risk for worse social class people to increase some kinds of mental and physical illness and low sense of happiness. (Bickell, 1992: 117)

In a conducted research, it was noted that patients in the lower socioeconomic classes reportedly suffered from severe atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, prior heart attacks, left ventricular dysfunction and heart failures. These patients seemingly also suffered from hypertension, prior stroke, and peripheral artery diseases. They were also treated for diabetes, were smokers and had severe obstructive pulmonary disease.

The research revealed that a large number of black men and women participants belonged to the lower socioeconomic classes rather than white men and women. To determine the socioeconomic positions, scientists investigated six categories of U.S Census data linked to patients’ neighborhood which included heads like median household income, educational level and median home value. Patients’ socioeconomic factors and risk-adjusted health outcomes after six-months of surgery were also examined. The median follow-up was conducted 5.8 years later. (Bickell, 1992: 129)

The death rate among these patients from lower socioeconomic levels was not that prominent when the patients stayed-on in the hospital following surgery. According to Bickell, recommendation to cardiac treatment programs after operation, educational problems and financial hindrances could all be put in to poor health outcomes in follow-up years. The mortality rate among these patients may be improved by working on the link to primary prevention, identifying risk factors, delivering secondary prevention and increasing access to long-term interventions.

HIV /AIDS and Cardiovascular Disease

A genetic marker linked with oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in human beings and mice is strongly connected with the occurrence of cardiovascular illness, metabolic poorer immune and syndrome recovery in individuals with HIV. US researchers pointed out in the February 15th version of the Journal of Infectious illness.

Individuals infected with HIV necessitate a better focusing for heart disease treatment and screening points out the scholars of one of the main studies of cardiac health and HIV yet carried out. The research was published on October 15th version of Clinical Communicable Diseases. Long-term antiretroviral treatment, mainly if it involves a protease inhibitor, is said to enhance the threat of heart disease, approximately 40% over six years of evaluation. According to the findings the lipid elevations is linked with protease inhibitor therapy. (Kahn, 1990: 102)

In general, the prevalence of CHD in the HIV-infected people has been low because patients are possibly likely to be young. However, the ageing of the HIV people and the effect of more effective therapy means that stroke and heart disease are now becoming primary causes of death in the population with HIV disease, as they are in the common population. (Coll, 2007: 141)

Cardiovascular illness is an increasingly common cause of mortality in people with HIV. However, there is inadequacy of clarity about the relative assistance of antiretroviral drugs, inflammatory development due to HIV disease and the well-recognized threat factors such as, weight age, lack of exercise, smoking, and diet on cardiovascular risk in people with HIV. (Coll, 2007: 145)

Psoriasis and cardiovascular disease

Psoriasis is a persistent skin disease that affects 2%-4% of adults, and also is a threat issue for heart attack. “In patients below age 50 with severe illness, the risk is equivalent to diabetes.”

Gelfand conducted a research with his colleagues and compared cardiovascular diseases risks in roughly 131,000 patients with psoriasis; 3,837 of them had stern psoriasis. The research also integrated 556,995 matched patients who were not affected by psoriasis for evaluation. The researchers established that psoriasis was linked with an elevated threat of heart attack in all age sets, but more likely in younger patients with severe illness.

“This is an important study results because psoriasis patients should be talking to their doctors about the treatment. Similarly, doctors should also talk to patients about this possible risk of psoriasis,” says Moller, administrator of research at the National Psoriasis organization. Several researchers, hospital-based studies have suggested a connection between psoriasis and an increased threat of cardiovascular. (Friis-Møller, 2007: 167)

According to the research, excess cardio-vascular risk is higher amongst psoriasis patients who are younger. For instance, a 40-year-old patient with mild illness has a 20% bigger risk of cardiovascular illness than a 40 years old patient with no psoriasis. But a 40-year-old patient with severe illness has greater chances at risk. The risk shows to reduce rather in adult patients. For example, the research points out that a 60 of age patient with severe illness has a 37% greater risk than 60 years of age patient who is not affected by psoriasis. (Wenger, 1993: 125)

“The absolute threat is still little, even for an individual who has severe illness,” Moller says. “If you’re in your 40s, your risk of having a heart attack or cardiovascular disease each year because of psoriasis is about one in 500 to one in 700. Above 10 years, that sums up to approximately one in 40-60. Therefore, it does become an important risk cause over time.” psoriasis is advanced by the same resistant pathways that are vigorous in atherosclerosis.” Atherosclerosis is consolidating of the arteries, which attaches to coronary artery illness and cardiovascular illness. (Friis-Møller, 2007: 195)

Treatment

Treatment choices are based on the likelihood the person suffering from a cardiovascular experience over a certain period of time. Evaluation of total cardiovascular risk is the beginning point for consideration between clinicians and patients who have capacity of significant risk of a cardiovascular occurrence. The prevention of cardiovascular occurrence is the target of treatment. Individuals should have an evaluation of cardiovascular threat for about every five years. This includes all adults aged 40 of age or above, and people at any age who are detected to have relative premature atherosclerotic (CVD) or familial dyslipidaemia. (Kaplan, 2007: 105)

Conclusion

Cardiovascular disease is any group of diseases that affect the blood vessels system or the heart. The disease has been a major cause of deaths in the US and this is a huge concern. In our case with regard to women, it has become common and needs to be eradicated. The only way to eradicate and suppress the spread of the disease is to lead healthy lives and seek treatment. Another way is to be keen to detect the possible symptoms of the disease at its early stages and seek treatment before it gets serious. Therefore, we can conclude by saying that the fight against cardiovascular disease in women and the world as a whole should be each citizen’s responsibility. The state should also create awareness on the disease through effective education to curb the widespread occurrence of the disease.

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